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      Licorice as a herbal extract in periodontal therapy

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          Abstract

          Periodontal disease is caused by specific pathogens which results in inflammation of the tooth-supporting structures and subsequently causes the continued breakdown of alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is a perennial herb with substantial medicinal value. Licorice extract is derived from dried, unpeeled stolons and roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and G. glabra. The bioactive ingredients in licorice extract such as glycyrrhizin, licoricidin, glabridin, licochalcone A, and licorisoflavan A have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-adherence effects that are beneficial against periodontal disease. Since periodontal disease has a complex etiology that includes the host response and microorganisms, licorice phytochemicals offer a therapeutic advantage due to their dual functionality. The aim of this review was to enumerate the bioactive compounds present in herbal licorice extract and to elucidate the beneficial effects of licorice and its derivatives in periodontal therapy. Literature review and clinical trials evaluating the effect of licorice on periodontopathogens and periodontal disease are included in this article.

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          Destructive and protective roles of cytokines in periodontitis: a re-appraisal from host defense and tissue destruction viewpoints.

          G Garlet (2010)
          Periodontal diseases (PD) are chronic infectious inflammatory diseases characterized by the destruction of tooth-supporting structures, being the presence of periodontopathogens required, but not sufficient, for disease development. As a general rule, host inflammatory mediators have been associated with tissue destruction, while anti-inflammatory mediators counteract and attenuate disease progression. With the discovery of several T-cell subsets bearing distinct immunoregulatory properties, this pro- vs. anti-inflammatory scenario became more complex, and a series of studies has hypothesized protective or destructive roles for Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg subpopulations of polarized lymphocytes. Interestingly, the "protective vs. destructive" archetype is usually considered in a framework related to tissue destruction and disease progression. However, it is important to remember that periodontal diseases are infectious inflammatory conditions, and recent studies have demonstrated that cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ) considered harmful in the context of tissue destruction play important roles in the control of periodontal infection. Therefore, in this review, the state-of-the-art knowledge concerning the protective and destructive roles of host inflammatory immune response will be critically evaluated and discussed from the tissue destruction and control-of-infection viewpoints.
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            Review on plant antimicrobials: a mechanistic viewpoint

            Microbial resistance to classical antibiotics and its rapid progression have raised serious concern in the treatment of infectious diseases. Recently, many studies have been directed towards finding promising solutions to overcome these problems. Phytochemicals have exerted potential antibacterial activities against sensitive and resistant pathogens via different mechanisms of action. In this review, we have summarized the main antibiotic resistance mechanisms of bacteria and also discussed how phytochemicals belonging to different chemical classes could reverse the antibiotic resistance. Next to containing direct antimicrobial activities, some of them have exerted in vitro synergistic effects when being combined with conventional antibiotics. Considering these facts, it could be stated that phytochemicals represent a valuable source of bioactive compounds with potent antimicrobial activities.
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              Risk and safety assessment on the consumption of Licorice root (Glycyrrhiza sp.), its extract and powder as a food ingredient, with emphasis on the pharmacology and toxicology of glycyrrhizin.

              Licorice (or 'liquorice') is a plant of ancient origin and steeped in history. Licorice extracts and its principle component, glycyrrhizin, have extensive use in foods, tobacco and in both traditional and herbal medicine. As a result, there is a high level of use of licorice and glycyrrhizin in the US with an estimated consumption of 0.027-3.6 mg glycyrrhizin/kg/day. Both products have been approved for use in foods by most national and supranational regulatory agencies. Biochemical studies indicate that glycyrrhizinates inhibit 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for inactivating cortisol. As a result, the continuous, high level exposure to glycyrrhizin compounds can produce hypermineralocorticoid-like effects in both animals and humans. These effects are reversible upon withdrawal of licorice or glycyrrhizin. Other in vivo and clinical studies have reported beneficial effects of both licorice and glycyrrhizin consumption including anti-ulcer, anti-viral, and hepatoprotective responses. Various genotoxic studies have indicated that glycyrrhizin is neither teratogenic nor mutagenic, and may possess anti-genotoxic properties under certain conditions. The pharmacokinetics of glycyrrhizin have been described and show that its bioavailability is reduced when consumed as licorice; this has hampered attempts to establish clear dose-effect levels in animals and humans. Based on the in vivo and clinical evidence, we propose an acceptable daily intake of 0.015-0.229 mg glycyrrhizin/kg body weight/day.
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                Journal
                Drug Target Insights
                dti
                Aboutscience Srl
                1177-3928
                December 31 2023
                June 05 2023
                : 17
                : 1
                : 70-77
                Article
                10.33393/dti.2023.2583
                e109a5af-06a4-4979-84e8-80f237f8e3be
                © 2023

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

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