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      Effects of Sphagnum Leachate on Competitive Sphagnum Microbiome Depend on Species and Time

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          Abstract

          Plant specialized metabolites play an important role in soil carbon (C) and nutrient fluxes. Through anti-microbial effects, they can modulate microbial assemblages and associated microbial-driven processes, such as nutrient cycling, so to positively or negatively cascade on plant fitness. As such, plant specialized metabolites can be used as a tool to supplant competitors. These compounds are little studied in bryophytes. This is especially notable in peatlands where Sphagnum mosses can dominate the vegetation and show strong interspecific competition. Sphagnum mosses form carpets where diverse microbial communities live and play a crucial role in Sphagnum fitness by regulating C and nutrient cycling. Here, by means of a microcosm experiment, we assessed to what extent moss metabolites of two Sphagnum species ( S. fallax and S. divinum) modulate the competitive Sphagnum microbiome, with particular focus on microbial respiration. Using a reciprocal leachate experiment, we found that interactions between Sphagnum leachates and microbiome are species-specific. We show that both Sphagnum leachates differed in compound richness and compound relative abundance, especially sphagnum acid derivates, and that they include microbial-related metabolites. The addition of S. divinum leachate on the S. fallax microbiome immediately reduced microbial respiration (−95%). Prolonged exposition of S. fallax microbiome to S. divinum leachate destabilized the food web structure due to a modulation of microbial abundance. In particular, leachate addition decreased the biomass of testate amoebae and rotifers but increased that of ciliates. These changes did not influence microbial CO 2 respiration, suggesting that the structural plasticity of the food web leads to its functional resistance through the replacement of species that are functionally redundant. In contrast, S. fallax leachate neither affected S. divinum microbial respiration, nor microbial biomass. We, however, found that S. fallax leachate addition stabilized the food web structure associated to S. divinum by changing trophic interactions among species. The differences in allelopathic effects between both Sphagnum leachates might impact their competitiveness and affect species distribution at local scale. Our study further paves the way to better understand the role of moss and microbial specialized metabolites in peatland C dynamics.

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          Feed Your Friends: Do Plant Exudates Shape the Root Microbiome?

          Plant health in natural environments depends on interactions with complex and dynamic communities comprising macro- and microorganisms. While many studies have provided insights into the composition of rhizosphere microbiomes (rhizobiomes), little is known about whether plants shape their rhizobiomes. Here, we discuss physiological factors of plants that may govern plant-microbe interactions, focusing on root physiology and the role of root exudates. Given that only a few plant transport proteins are known to be involved in root metabolite export, we suggest novel families putatively involved in this process. Finally, building off of the features discussed in this review, and in analogy to well-known symbioses, we elaborate on a possible sequence of events governing rhizobiome assembly.
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            Contribution of cryptogamic covers to the global cycles of carbon and nitrogen

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              Bow ties, metabolism and disease.

              Highly organized, universal structures underlying biological and technological networks mediate effective trade-offs among efficiency, robustness and evolvability, with predictable fragilities that can be used to understand disease pathogenesis. The aims of this article are to describe the features of one common organizational architecture in biology, the bow tie. Large-scale organizational frameworks such as the bow tie are necessary starting points for higher-resolution modeling of complex biologic processes
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-302X
                06 September 2019
                2019
                : 10
                Affiliations
                1ECOLAB, Laboratoire d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement, Université de Toulouse, CNRS , Toulouse, France
                2Laboratory of Ecological Systems (ECOS), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering , Lausanne, Switzerland
                3Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL) , Lausanne, Switzerland
                4Laboratoire de Géologie, UMR 8538, CNRS-ENS, Ecole Normale Supérieure , Paris, France
                5School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton , Southampton, United Kingdom
                6Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology Group, Faculty of Science, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University , Nijmegen, Netherlands
                7School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne , Geneva, Switzerland
                8Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Naresuan University , Phitsanulok, Thailand
                9Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, Université Bourgogne Franche Comté, UMR CNRS 6249 USC INRA , Montbéliard, France
                10Laboratoire Carrtel, Université Savoie Mont Blanc INRA 042, Domaine Universitaire Belledonne , Le Bourget-du-Lac, France
                11Department of Life Science and Biotechnologies, University of Ferrara , Ferrara, Italy
                Author notes

                Edited by: Javier A. Ceja-Navarro, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, United States

                Reviewed by: Tomasz Mieczan, University of Life Sciences of Lublin, Poland; Talia Jewell, General Automation Lab Technologies, Inc., United States

                *Correspondence: Vincent E. J. Jassey, vincent.jassey@ 123456univ-tlse3.fr

                Present address: Flore de Baaker, Pfizer Manufacturing, Puurs, Belgium

                This article was submitted to Terrestrial Microbiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Article
                10.3389/fmicb.2019.02042
                6742715
                Copyright © 2019 Hamard, Robroek, Allard, Signarbieux, Zhou, Saesong, de Baaker, Buttler, Chiapusio, Wolfender, Bragazza and Jassey.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 90, Pages: 17, Words: 0
                Categories
                Microbiology
                Original Research

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