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      Lookup-table method for imaging optical properties with structured illumination beyond the diffusion theory regime.

      Journal of Biomedical Optics
      Absorption, Algorithms, Calibration, Coloring Agents, Models, Theoretical, Nephelometry and Turbidimetry, Optics and Photonics, methods, Phantoms, Imaging, Reproducibility of Results, Scattering, Radiation, Spectrum Analysis

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          Sinusoidally structured illumination is used in concert with a phantom-based lookup-table (LUT) to map wide-field optical properties in turbid media with reduced albedos as low as 0.44. A key advantage of the lookup-table approach is the ability to measure the absorption (mu(a)) and reduced scattering coefficients (mu(s) (')) over a much broader range of values than permitted by current diffusion theory methods. Through calibration with a single reflectance standard, the LUT can extract mu(s) (') from 0.8 to 2.4 mm(-1) with an average root-mean-square (rms) error of 7% and extract mu(a) from 0 to 1.0 mm(-1) with an average rms error of 6%. The LUT is based solely on measurements of two parameters, reflectance R and modulation M at an illumination period of 10 mm. A single set of three phase-shifted images is sufficient to measure both M and R, which are then used to generate maps of absorption and scattering by referencing the LUT. We establish empirically that each pair (M,R) maps uniquely to only one pair of (micro(s) ('),micro(a)) and report that the phase function (i.e., size) of the scatterers can influence the accuracy of optical property extraction.

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