This study examined associations of annual glycemic variability and postprandial dysmetabolism with annual decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in type 2 diabetic patients with different stages of nephropathy.
Intrapersonal mean and coefficient of variation (CV) of HbA1c, fasting and postmeal concentrations of plasma glucose (FPG and PMPG, respectively) and serum triglycerides (FTG and PMTG, respectively) during the first 12 months after enrollment were calculated in a cohort of 168 type 2 diabetic patients: 53 with optimal albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR < 10 mg/g), 62 with high normal ACR (10–29 mg/g) and 53 with elevated ACR (≧30 mg/g). Annual changes in eGFR were computed using 52 (median) creatinine measurements obtained over a median follow-up of 6.0 years. Multivariate linear regressions assessed the independent correlates of changes in eGFR.
Kidney function declined faster in patients with high normal and elevated ACR (−1.47 and −2.01 ml/min/1.73 m 2/year, respectively) compared to patients with optimal ACR (0.08 ml/min/1.73 m 2/year, p < 0.05). In patients with high normal ACR, age (standardized β、-0.30、 p = 0.01), CV-HbA1c (standardized β、-0.66、 p < 0.001) and CV-PMPG (standardized β、-0.27、 p = 0.01) was associated with annual eGFR decline independently of mean HbA1c and PMPG, sex, BMI, waist circumference, diabetes duration and therapy, means and CVs of FPG and systolic blood pressure, baseline eGFR, log ACR and uses of anti-hypertensive medications (R 2 = 0.47). In patients with elevated ACR, PMTG (standardized β、-0.408, p = 0.007) was associated with annual eGFR decline (R 2 = 0.15).