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      Focus on Notoginsenoside R1 in Metabolism and Prevention Against Human Diseases

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          Abstract

          Notoginsenoside (NG)-R1 is one of the main bioactive compounds from Panax notoginseng (PN) root, which is well known in the prescription for mediating the micro-circulatory hemostasis in human. In this article, we mainly discuss NG-R1 in metabolism and the biological activities, including cardiovascular protection, neuro-protection, anti-diabetes, liver protection, gastrointestinal protection, lung protection, bone metabolism regulation, renal protection, and anti-cancer. The metabolites produced by deglycosylation of NG-R1 exhibit higher permeability and bioavailability. It has been extensively verified that NG-R1 may ameliorate ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced injury in cardiovascular and neuronal systems mainly by upregulating the activity of estrogen receptor α-dependent phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) and nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2) pathways and downregulating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. However, no specific targets for NG-R1 have been identified. Expectedly, NG-R1 has been used as a main bioactive compound in many Traditional Chinese Medicines clinically, such as Xuesaitong, Naodesheng, XueShuanTong, ShenMai, and QSYQ. These suggest that NG-R1 exhibits a significant potency in drug development.

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          Absorption and disposition of ginsenosides after oral administration of Panax notoginseng extract to rats.

          Panax notoginseng (Sanqi) is a cardiovascular herb containing ginsenosides that are believed to be responsible for the therapeutic effects of Sanqi. The aim of this study was to evaluate rat exposure to ginsenosides after oral administration of Sanqi extract and to identify the key factors affecting their absorption and disposition. Ginsenosides were administered to rats, either in the form of Sanqi extract or as pure chemicals. The ginsenosides Ra(3), Rb(1), Rd, Re, Rg(1), and notoginsenoside R(1) were the major saponins present in the herbal extract. Systemic exposure to ginsenosides Ra(3), Rb(1), and Rd after oral administration of the extract was significantly greater than that to the other compounds. Considerable colonic deglycosylation of the ginsenosides occurred, but the plasma levels of deglycosylated metabolites were low in rats. Poor membrane permeability and active biliary excretion are the two primary factors limiting systemic exposure to most ginsenosides and their deglycosylated metabolites. In contrast with other ginsenosides, biliary excretion of ginsenosides Ra(3) and Rb(1) was passive. Meanwhile, the active biliary excretion of ginsenoside Rd was significantly slower than that of other saponins. Slow biliary excretion, inefficient metabolism, and slow renal excretion resulted in long-circulating and thus relatively high exposure levels for these three ginsenosides. For these reasons, plasma ginsenosides Ra(3), Rb(1), and Rd were identified as pharmacokinetic markers for indicating rat systemic exposure to Sanqi extract. This is a systematic investigation of the absorption and disposition of ginsenosides from an herb, the information gained from which is important for linking Sanqi administration to its medicinal effects.
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            Comparative efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine in child and adolescent ADHD: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials.

             Maneeton,  DeRosa,  SE Sedykh (2015)
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              Cardioprotective effects of Notoginsenoside R1 against ischemia/reperfusion injuries by regulating oxidative stress- and endoplasmic reticulum stress- related signaling pathways

              Background: Recent reports suggested the involvement of oxidative stress- and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-associated pathways in the progression of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is a novel saponin isolated from P. notoginseng, which has a history of prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Objective: We aimed to examine the cardioprotective effects of NGR1 on I/R-induced heart dysfunction ex vivo and in vitro. Methods: H9c2 cadiomyocytes were incubated with NGR1 for 24 h and exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation. Isolated rat hearts were perfused by NGR1 for 15 min and then subjected to global ischemia/reperfusion. Hemodynamic parameters were monitored as left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), heart rate, and maximal rate of increase and decrease of left ventricular pressure (±dP/dt max/min). Results: NGR1 pretreatment prevents cell apoptosis and delays the onset of ERS by decreasing the protein expression levels of ERS-responsive proteins GRP78, P-PERK, ATF6, IRE, and inhibiting the expression of pro-apoptosis proteins CHOP, Caspase-12, and P-JNK. Besides, NGR1 scavenges free radical, and increases the activity of antioxidase. NGR1 inhibits Tunicamycin-induced cell death and cardic dysfunction. Conclusion: We elucidated the significant cardioprotective effects of NGR1 against I/R injuries, and demonstrated the involvement of oxidative stress and ERS in the protective effects of NGR1.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                07 February 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 551-565
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine , Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]College of Pharmacy, Gannan Medical University , Ganzhou, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Clinical Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Gannan Medical University , Ganzhou, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Shouying Du School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine , 11 North 3rd Ring East Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 17812165051Fax +86 10 64286231 Email dumenzidi123@163.com
                Article
                240511
                10.2147/DDDT.S240511
                7012233
                © 2020 Liu et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 102, Pages: 15
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