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      Influence of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of ENPP1 and ADIPOQ on Insulin Resistance and Obesity: A Case-Control Study in a Javanese Population

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          Abstract

          Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in obesity-related genes, such as ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ), potentially increase the risk of insulin resistance, the most common metabolic dysregulation related to obesity. We investigated the association of ENPP1 SNP K121Q (rs1044498) with insulin resistance and ADIPOQ SNP + 267G > T (rs1501299) with circulating adiponectin levels in a case–control study involving 55 obese and 55 lean Javanese people residing in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Allele frequency was determined by a chi squared test or Fisher’s exact test with an expected value less than 0.05. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by regression logistic analysis. The presence of the Q121 allele of ENPP1 resulted in significantly higher fasting glucose, fasting insulin levels, and HOMA-IR, as compared to homozygous K121 carriers. The risk of insulin resistance was elevated in obese individuals carrying Q121 instead of homozygous K121. Adiponectin level was significantly lower in the obese group as compared to the lean group. Obese individuals carrying homozygous protective alleles (TT) of ADIPOQ tended to have lower adiponectin levels as compared to GT and GG carriers, however, we did not find statistically significant effects of the +276G > T SNP of the ADIPOQ gene on the plasma adiponectin levels or on the development of obesity.

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          Obesity

          Excess bodyweight is the sixth most important risk factor contributing to the overall burden of disease worldwide. 1.1 billion adults and 10% of children are now classified as overweight or obese. Average life expectancy is already diminished; the main adverse consequences are cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and several cancers. The complex pathological processes reflect environmental and genetic interactions, and individuals from disadvantaged communities seem to have greater risks than more affluent individuals partly because of fetal and postnatal imprinting. Obesity, with its array of comorbidities, necessitates careful clinical assessment to identify underlying factors and to allow coherent management. The epidemic reflects progressive secular and age-related decreases in physical activity, together with substantial dietary changes with passive over-consumption of energy despite the neurobiological processes controlling food intake. Effective long-term weight loss depends on permanent changes in dietary quality, energy intake, and activity. Neither the medical management nor the societal preventive challenges are currently being met.
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            Adiponectin, Leptin, and Fatty Acids in the Maintenance of Metabolic Homeostasis through Adipose Tissue Crosstalk.

            Metabolism research has made tremendous progress over the last several decades in establishing the adipocyte as a central rheostat in the regulation of systemic nutrient and energy homeostasis. Operating at multiple levels of control, the adipocyte communicates with organ systems to adjust gene expression, glucoregulatory hormone exocytosis, enzymatic reactions, and nutrient flux to equilibrate the metabolic demands of a positive or negative energy balance. The identification of these mechanisms has great potential to identify novel targets for the treatment of diabetes and related metabolic disorders. Herein, we review the central role of the adipocyte in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis, highlighting three critical mediators: adiponectin, leptin, and fatty acids.
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              Paradoxical decrease of an adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in obesity.

              We isolated the human adipose-specific and most abundant gene transcript, apM1 (Maeda, K., et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 221, 286-289, 1996). The apM1 gene product was a kind of soluble matrix protein, which we named adiponectin. To quantitate the plasma adiponectin concentration, we have produced monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies for human adiponectin and developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system. Adiponectin was abundantly present in the plasma of healthy volunteers in the range from 1.9 to 17.0 mg/ml. Plasma concentrations of adiponectin in obese subjects were significantly lower than those in non-obese subjects, although adiponectin is secreted only from adipose tissue. The ELISA system developed in this study will be useful for elucidating the physiological and pathophysiological role of adiponectin in humans. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Life (Basel)
                Life (Basel)
                life
                Life
                MDPI
                2075-1729
                11 June 2021
                June 2021
                : 11
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratory of Cell Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary; ariantirini@ 123456med.unideb.hu
                [2 ]Doctoral School of Molecular Cell and Immune Biology, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary
                [3 ]Department of Applied Health Sciences, Health Polytechnic Ministry of Health Malang, Malang 65112, Indonesia; nia.ariani@ 123456poltekkes-malang.ac.id
                [4 ]Department of Nursing Sciences, Health Polytechnic Ministry of Health Ternate, South Ternate 97713, Indonesia; alazharmuhammad08@ 123456gmail.com
                [5 ]Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia; hamimsadewa@ 123456gmail.com (A.H.S.); a.farmawati@ 123456ugm.ac.id (A.F.); nartyr@ 123456ugm.ac.id (S.); pramudji.has@ 123456ugm.ac.id (P.H.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: kristof.endre@ 123456med.unideb.hu ; Tel.: +36-52-416-432
                [†]

                Contributed equally.

                Article
                life-11-00552
                10.3390/life11060552
                8231196
                e12d8431-d948-4754-88b0-fc9f839af6aa
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                enpp1 gene,adipoq gene,circulating adiponectin,obesity,insulin resistance,metabolic syndrome,snp k121q (rs1044498),snp + 276g > t (rs1501299)

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