Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in obesity-related genes, such as ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ), potentially increase the risk of insulin resistance, the most common metabolic dysregulation related to obesity. We investigated the association of ENPP1 SNP K121Q (rs1044498) with insulin resistance and ADIPOQ SNP + 267G > T (rs1501299) with circulating adiponectin levels in a case–control study involving 55 obese and 55 lean Javanese people residing in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Allele frequency was determined by a chi squared test or Fisher’s exact test with an expected value less than 0.05. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by regression logistic analysis. The presence of the Q121 allele of ENPP1 resulted in significantly higher fasting glucose, fasting insulin levels, and HOMA-IR, as compared to homozygous K121 carriers. The risk of insulin resistance was elevated in obese individuals carrying Q121 instead of homozygous K121. Adiponectin level was significantly lower in the obese group as compared to the lean group. Obese individuals carrying homozygous protective alleles (TT) of ADIPOQ tended to have lower adiponectin levels as compared to GT and GG carriers, however, we did not find statistically significant effects of the +276G > T SNP of the ADIPOQ gene on the plasma adiponectin levels or on the development of obesity.