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      Anti-inflammatory drugs for Duchenne muscular dystrophy: focus on skeletal muscle-releasing factors

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          Abstract

          Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an incurable and a progressive muscle wasting disease, is caused by the absence of dystrophin protein, leading to recurrent muscle fiber damage during contraction. The inflammatory response to fiber damage is a compelling candidate mechanism for disease exacerbation. The only established pharmacological treatment for DMD is corticosteroids to suppress muscle inflammation, however this treatment is limited by its insufficient therapeutic efficacy and considerable side effects. Recent reports show the therapeutic potential of inhibiting or enhancing pro- or anti-inflammatory factors released from DMD skeletal muscles, resulting in significant recovery from muscle atrophy and dysfunction. We discuss and review the recent findings of DMD inflammation and opportunities for drug development targeting specific releasing factors from skeletal muscles. It has been speculated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs targeting specific inflammatory factors are more effective and have less side effects for DMD compared with steroidal drugs. For example, calcium channels, reactive oxygen species, and nuclear factor-κB signaling factors are the most promising targets as master regulators of inflammatory response in DMD skeletal muscles. If they are combined with an oligonucleotide-based exon skipping therapy to restore dystrophin expression, the anti-inflammatory drug therapies may address the present therapeutic limitation of low efficiency for DMD.

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          Most cited references 94

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          NF-kappaB-induced loss of MyoD messenger RNA: possible role in muscle decay and cachexia.

          MyoD regulates skeletal muscle differentiation (SMD) and is essential for repair of damaged tissue. The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) is activated by the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a mediator of skeletal muscle wasting in cachexia. Here, the role of NF-kappaB in cytokine-induced muscle degeneration was explored. In differentiating C2C12 myocytes, TNF-induced activation of NF-kappaB inhibited SMD by suppressing MyoD mRNA at the posttranscriptional level. In contrast, in differentiated myotubes, TNF plus interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) signaling was required for NF-kappaB-dependent down-regulation of MyoD and dysfunction of skeletal myofibers. MyoD mRNA was also down-regulated by TNF and IFN-gamma expression in mouse muscle in vivo. These data elucidate a possible mechanism that may underlie the skeletal muscle decay in cachexia.
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            Myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle growth, functions by inhibiting myoblast proliferation.

            Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, has been shown to be a negative regulator of myogenesis. Here we show that myostatin functions by controlling the proliferation of muscle precursor cells. When C(2)C(12) myoblasts were incubated with myostatin, proliferation of myoblasts decreased with increasing levels of myostatin. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed that myostatin prevented the progression of myoblasts from the G(1)- to S-phase of the cell cycle. Western analysis indicated that myostatin specifically up-regulated p21(Waf1, Cip1), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and decreased the levels and activity of Cdk2 protein in myoblasts. Furthermore, we also observed that in myoblasts treated with myostatin protein, Rb was predominately present in the hypophosphorylated form. These results suggests that, in response to myostatin signaling, there is an increase in p21 expression and a decrease in Cdk2 protein and activity thus resulting in an accumulation of hypophosphorylated Rb protein. This, in turn, leads to the arrest of myoblasts in G(1)-phase of cell cycle. Thus, we propose that the generalized muscular hyperplasia phenotype observed in animals that lack functional myostatin could be as a result of deregulated myoblast proliferation.
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              Myostatin inhibits myoblast differentiation by down-regulating MyoD expression.

              Myostatin, a negative regulator of myogenesis, is shown to function by controlling the proliferation of myoblasts. In this study we show that myostatin is an inhibitor of myoblast differentiation and that this inhibition is mediated through Smad 3. In vitro, increasing concentrations of recombinant mature myostatin reversibly blocked the myogenic differentiation of myoblasts, cultured in low serum media. Western and Northern blot analysis indicated that addition of myostatin to the low serum culture media repressed the levels of MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and p21 leading to the inhibition of myogenic differentiation. The transient transfection of C(2)C(12) myoblasts with MyoD expressing constructs did not rescue myostatin-inhibited myogenic differentiation. Myostatin signaling specifically induced Smad 3 phosphorylation and increased Smad 3.MyoD association, suggesting that Smad 3 may mediate the myostatin signal by interfering with MyoD activity and expression. Consistent with this, the expression of dominant-negative Smad3 rescued the activity of a MyoD promoter-reporter in C(2)C(12) myoblasts treated with myostatin. Taken together, these results suggest that myostatin inhibits MyoD activity and expression via Smad 3 resulting in the failure of the myoblasts to differentiate into myotubes. Thus we propose that myostatin plays a critical role in myogenic differentiation and that the muscular hyperplasia and hypertrophy seen in animals that lack functional myostatin is because of deregulated proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2016
                30 August 2016
                : 10
                : 2745-2758
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Molecular Therapy, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Child Neurology, National Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yoshitsugu Aoki, Department of Molecular Therapy, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawahigashi-Cho, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8502, Japan, Tel +81 42 346 1720, Fax +81 42 346 1750, Email tsugu56@ 123456ncnp.go.jp
                Article
                dddt-10-2745
                10.2147/DDDT.S110163
                5012616
                27621596
                © 2016 Miyatake et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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