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      Two Populations of Viral Minichromosomes Are Present in a Geminivirus-Infected Plant Showing Symptom Remission (Recovery).

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          Abstract

          Geminiviruses are important plant pathogens characterized by circular, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genomes. However, in the nuclei of infected cells, viral double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) associates with host histones to form a minichromosome. In phloem-limited geminiviruses, the characterization of viral minichromosomes is hindered by the low concentration of recovered complexes due to the small number of infected cells. Nevertheless, geminiviruses are both inducers and targets of the host posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) machinery. We have previously characterized a "recovery" phenomenon observed in pepper plants infected with pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) that is associated with a reduction of viral DNA and RNA levels, the presence of virus-related siRNAs, and an increase in the levels of viral DNA methylation. Initial micrococcal nuclease-based assays pinpointed the presence of different viral chromatin complexes in symptomatic and recovered tissues. Using the pepper-PepGMV system, we developed a methodology to obtain a viral minichromosome-enriched fraction that does not disturb the basic chromatin structural integrity, as evaluated by the detection of core histones. Using this procedure, we have further characterized two populations of viral minichromosomes in PepGMV-infected plants. After further purification using sucrose gradient sedimentation, we also observed that minichromosomes isolated from symptomatic tissue showed a relaxed conformation (based on their sedimentation rate), are associated with a chromatin activation marker (H3K4me3), and present a low level of DNA methylation. The minichromosome population obtained from recovered tissue, on the other hand, sedimented as a compact structure, is associated with a chromatin-repressive marker (H3K9me2), and presents a high level of DNA methylation.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          J. Virol.
          Journal of virology
          American Society for Microbiology
          1098-5514
          0022-538X
          Apr 2016
          : 90
          : 8
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Departamento de Ingeniería Genética, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Cinvestav-Irapuato, Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico.
          [2 ] Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CIIDIR-Unidad Sinaloa, Departamento de Biotecnología Agrícola, Guasave, Sinaloa, Mexico.
          [3 ] Departamento de Ingeniería Genética, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Cinvestav-Irapuato, Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico rrivera@ira.cinvestav.mx.
          Article
          JVI.02385-15
          10.1128/JVI.02385-15
          4810539
          26792752

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