+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Acute myeloid leukemia: current progress and future directions


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Progress in the understanding of the biology and therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is occurring rapidly. Since 2017, nine agents have been approved for various indications in AML. These included several targeted therapies like venetoclax, FLT3 inhibitors, IDH inhibitors, and others. The management of AML is complicated, highlighting the need for expertise in order to deliver optimal therapy and achieve optimal outcomes. The multiple subentities in AML require very different therapies. In this review, we summarize the important pathophysiologies driving AML, review current therapies in standard practice, and address present and future research directions.

          Related collections

          Most cited references184

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Diagnosis and management of AML in adults: 2017 ELN recommendations from an international expert panel.

          The first edition of the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) recommendations for diagnosis and management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in adults, published in 2010, has found broad acceptance by physicians and investigators caring for patients with AML. Recent advances, for example, in the discovery of the genomic landscape of the disease, in the development of assays for genetic testing and for detecting minimal residual disease (MRD), as well as in the development of novel antileukemic agents, prompted an international panel to provide updated evidence- and expert opinion-based recommendations. The recommendations include a revised version of the ELN genetic categories, a proposal for a response category based on MRD status, and criteria for progressive disease.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Genomic Classification and Prognosis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

            New England Journal of Medicine, 374(23), 2209-2221
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Genomic and epigenomic landscapes of adult de novo acute myeloid leukemia.

              Many mutations that contribute to the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are undefined. The relationships between patterns of mutations and epigenetic phenotypes are not yet clear. We analyzed the genomes of 200 clinically annotated adult cases of de novo AML, using either whole-genome sequencing (50 cases) or whole-exome sequencing (150 cases), along with RNA and microRNA sequencing and DNA-methylation analysis. AML genomes have fewer mutations than most other adult cancers, with an average of only 13 mutations found in genes. Of these, an average of 5 are in genes that are recurrently mutated in AML. A total of 23 genes were significantly mutated, and another 237 were mutated in two or more samples. Nearly all samples had at least 1 nonsynonymous mutation in one of nine categories of genes that are almost certainly relevant for pathogenesis, including transcription-factor fusions (18% of cases), the gene encoding nucleophosmin (NPM1) (27%), tumor-suppressor genes (16%), DNA-methylation-related genes (44%), signaling genes (59%), chromatin-modifying genes (30%), myeloid transcription-factor genes (22%), cohesin-complex genes (13%), and spliceosome-complex genes (14%). Patterns of cooperation and mutual exclusivity suggested strong biologic relationships among several of the genes and categories. We identified at least one potential driver mutation in nearly all AML samples and found that a complex interplay of genetic events contributes to AML pathogenesis in individual patients. The databases from this study are widely available to serve as a foundation for further investigations of AML pathogenesis, classification, and risk stratification. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).

                Author and article information

                Blood Cancer J
                Blood Cancer J
                Blood Cancer Journal
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                22 February 2021
                22 February 2021
                February 2021
                : 11
                : 2
                : 41
                GRID grid.240145.6, ISNI 0000 0001 2291 4776, Department of Leukemia, , MD Anderson Cancer Center, ; Houston, TX USA
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                : 21 October 2020
                : 14 December 2020
                : 18 January 2021
                Funded by: MD Anderson Leukemia SPORE CA100632 Cancer Center Support Grant (CCSG) P30CA016672 Charif Souki Cancer Research Grant
                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                prognosis,health services
                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                prognosis, health services


                Comment on this article


                Similar content275

                Cited by122

                Most referenced authors4,154