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      Children's creation of algorithms: simulations and gestures

      , , ,

      Journal of Cognitive Psychology

      Informa UK Limited

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          The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex "Frontal Lobe" tasks: a latent variable analysis.

          This individual differences study examined the separability of three often postulated executive functions-mental set shifting ("Shifting"), information updating and monitoring ("Updating"), and inhibition of prepotent responses ("Inhibition")-and their roles in complex "frontal lobe" or "executive" tasks. One hundred thirty-seven college students performed a set of relatively simple experimental tasks that are considered to predominantly tap each target executive function as well as a set of frequently used executive tasks: the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Tower of Hanoi (TOH), random number generation (RNG), operation span, and dual tasking. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the three target executive functions are moderately correlated with one another, but are clearly separable. Moreover, structural equation modeling suggested that the three functions contribute differentially to performance on complex executive tasks. Specifically, WCST performance was related most strongly to Shifting, TOH to Inhibition, RNG to Inhibition and Updating, and operation span to Updating. Dual task performance was not related to any of the three target functions. These results suggest that it is important to recognize both the unity and diversity of executive functions and that latent variable analysis is a useful approach to studying the organization and roles of executive functions. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
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            Mental Rotation of Three-Dimensional Objects

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              Specific impairments of planning.

               T Shallice (1982)
              An information-processing model is outlined that predicts that performance on non-routine tasks can be impaired independently of performance on routine tasks. The model is related to views on frontal lobe functions, particularly those of Luria. Two methods of obtaining more rigorous tests of the model are discussed. One makes use of ideas from artificial intelligence to derive a task heavily loaded on planning abilities. A group of patients with left anterior lesions has a specific deficit on the task. Subsidiary investigations support the inference that this is a planning impairment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Cognitive Psychology
                Journal of Cognitive Psychology
                Informa UK Limited
                2044-5911
                2044-592X
                January 22 2016
                April 02 2016
                January 17 2016
                April 02 2016
                : 28
                : 3
                : 297-318
                Article
                10.1080/20445911.2015.1134541
                © 2016

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