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      Role of Intrarenal Endothelin 1, Endothelin 3, and Angiotensin II Expression in Chronic Cyclosporin A Nephrotoxicity in Rats

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          Endothelin 1 (Et1) is widely expressed in the kidney and is related to several functions and to pathological conditions with progression towards sclerosis. The function of endothelin 3 (Et3) at the renal level is debatable, but it could have an important regulatory function in the reabsorption of water through its action on tubular type B receptors. Angiotensin II has recently been implicated as the principal factor responsible for the progression of interstitial fibrosis induced by cyclosporin A (CsA). We investigated this relationship in vivo and analyzed the modifications induced by CsA toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats treated with 25 mg/kg/day of CsA for 28 and 56 days. Immunohistochemical methods and molecular analysis were used to study the expression of Et1 and Et3 and immunohistochemistry alone to determine the intrarenal expression of angiotensin II. Rats treated with CsA developed chronic nephrotoxicity lesions; semiquantitative analyses of hyaline arteriolopathy revealed that the passage of time affected the extent of this lesion and led to the diminution of the total glomerular area. Immunohistochemical results showed that chronic CsA treatment induced moderate secretion of Et1 and Et3 at tubular and glomerular levels and that the local expression of angiotensin II in the treatment groups was more evident than in control animals. Besides, the mRNA levels of preproEt3 showed a dramatic increase from 28 days after CsA treatment (control group 0.07 ± 0.11 vs. CsA group 0.48 ± 0.11, p < 0.01), while the mRNA levels of preproEt1 increased from 56 days (control group 0.15 ± 0.05 vs. CsA group 0.34 ± 0.09, p < 0.05). At 28 days, renal lesions correlated strongly with the mRNA levels of Et3 (r > 0.50, p < 0.01). However, at 56 days, the key finding was the strong correlation of the most important analytical, histological, and immunohistochemical parameters of CsA nephrotoxicity with Et1 mRNA levels (r > 0.50, p < 0.01). These results support the hypothesis that the clinical and morphological phenomena linked with CsA nephrotoxicity are related to hypersecretion of endothelins and local expression of angiotensin II in the outer medulla and medullary rays; Et3 and angiotensin II are the first to act, followed subsequently by Et1.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction.

          A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.
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            Transforming growth factor beta in tissue fibrosis.

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              The T-cell transcription factor NFATp is a substrate for calcineurin and interacts with Fos and Jun.

              Transcription of lymphokine genes in activated T cells is inhibited by the immunosuppressive agents cyclosporin A and FK506, which act by blocking the phosphatase activity of calcineurin. NFAT, a DNA-binding protein required for interleukin-2 gene transcription, is a potential target for calcineurin, cyclosporin A and FK506. NFAT contains a subunit (NFATp) which is present in unstimulated T cells and which forms a complex with Fos and Jun proteins in the nucleus of activated T cells. Here we report that NFATp is a DNA-binding phosphoprotein of relative molecular mass approximately 120,000 and is a substrate for calcineurin in vitro. Purified NFATp forms DNA-protein complexes with recombinant Jun homodimers or Jun-Fos heterodimers; the DNA-binding domains of Fos and Jun are essential for the formation of the NFATp-Fos-Jun-DNA complex. The interaction between the lymphoid-specific factor NFATp and the ubiquitous transcription factors Fos and Jun provides a novel mechanism for combinatorial regulation of interleukin-2 gene transcription, which integrates the calcium-dependent and the protein-kinase C-dependent pathways of T-cell activation.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                June 2000
                10 May 2000
                : 8
                : 3
                : 161-172
                Department of Pathology, School of Medicine and University Hospital, Granada, Spain
                20664 Exp Nephrol 2000;8:161–172
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 3, Tables: 4, References: 61, Pages: 12
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