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      Database of Romanian cave invertebrates with a Red List of cave species and a list of hotspot/coldspot caves

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          Abstract

          Background

          The increasing human impact in Romanian caves raises the urgency of publishing a correct database of the strictly-adapted cave fauna. Previous attempts at indexing cave fauna and classifying caves by using their fauna opened many questions regarding the use of an incomplete list of cave species and mixed lists of troglobionts/stygobionts with troglophiles/stygophiles for ranking caves with priority for protection. It has also become obvious that there is a need to publish a list of Romanian cave species that are under threat. Cave species in Romania (and elsewhere) are endemic on small ranges, are unique and must be considered as important units for conservation. A cave must be equally protected if it has one or more rare and strictly endemic cave species. Although not exhaustive, we here provide the first checklist of Romanian troglobionts/stygobionts developed in the framework of the DARKFOOD and GROUNDWATERISK projects, coordinated by the “Emil Racovita” Institute of Speleology, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The GIS application was used to complement the checklist of cave species with data on caves and surface environments above the caves. Until complete data on species diversity and population sizes are made available for each cave, measures of conservation can be implemented, based on the presence/absence of cave species, while classifications of caves for protection, based on the number of species, must be avoided. We also propose a list of Romanian caves with fauna that are under threat and a tentative Red List of Romanian troglobiont/stygobionts.

          New information

          This is the first database with identified troglobiont and stygobiont species of Romania, with a critical analysis of their distribution inside the country. A list of caves that need protection for their rare and unique species and a tentative Red List of Romanian cave fauna are also added. A total of 173 species were identified, of which 77 troglobionts and 96 stygobionts are currently registered in 366 caves. The database is divided into two parts, one part with a list of troglobionts, their revised systematic position, cave name, cave code and geographic region; and the second part with the same information on stygobionts. The database represents the contribution of many active researchers, who are the authors of this paper and of review publications of many other authors of the "Emil Racoviță" Institute of Speleology.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Threatened biotas: "Hot spots" in tropical forests

           Norman Myers (1988)
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            Conserving Biodiversity Coldspots

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              Threatened biotas: "hot spots" in tropical forests.

              The mass-extinction episode underway is largely centered on tropical forests, insofar as they contain at least half of all Earth's species and they are being depleted faster than any other biome. But species distributions and depletion patterns are anything but uniform throughout the biome. This paper identifies 10 areas that a) are characterized by exceptional concentrations of species with high levels of endemism and b) are experiencing unusually rapid rates of depletion. While these "hotspot" areas comprise less than 3.5% of remaining primary forests, they harbor over 34,000 endemic plant species (27% of all plant species in tropical forests and 13% of all plant species worldwide). They also feature 700,000 endemic animal species and possibly several times more. Unfortunately, they appear likely to lose 90% of their forest cover as soon as the end of the century or shortly thereafter, causing the extinction of almost 7% of Earth's plant species and at least a similar proportion of animal species, this occurring in only 0.2% of Earth's land surface. By concentrating on such areas where needs are greatest and where the pay-off from safeguard measures would also be greatest, conservationists can engage in a more systematized response to the challenge of large-scale extinctions impending in tropical forests.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Biodivers Data J
                Biodivers Data J
                1
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:F9B2E808-C883-5F47-B276-6D62129E4FF4
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:245B00E9-BFE5-4B4F-B76E-15C30BA74C02
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2836
                1314-2828
                2020
                11 June 2020
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Emil Racovitza Institute of Speleology, Cluj-Napoca, Romania Emil Racovitza Institute of Speleology Cluj-Napoca Romania
                [2 ] Romanian Institute of Science and Technology, Cluj-Napoca, Romania Romanian Institute of Science and Technology Cluj-Napoca Romania
                [3 ] Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, Spain, Valencia, Spain Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, Spain Valencia Spain
                [4 ] Emil Racovitza Institute of Speleology, București, Romania Emil Racovitza Institute of Speleology București Romania
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Oana Teodora Moldovan ( oanamol35@ 123456gmail.com ).

                Academic editor: Diana Galassi

                Article
                53571 13249
                10.3897/BDJ.8.e53571
                7303226
                Oana Teodora Moldovan, Sanda Iepure, Traian Brad, Marius Kenesz, Ionuț Cornel Mirea, Ruxandra Năstase-Bucur

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 0, References: 30
                Funding
                Funded by: Unitatea Executiva pentru Finantarea Invatamantului Superior, a Cercetarii, Dezvoltarii si Inovarii 501100006595 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100006595
                Categories
                Data Paper (Biosciences)
                Troglodytidae
                Caves

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