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      Do job insecurity, anxiety and depression caused by the COVID-19 pandemic influence hotel employees’ self-rated task performance? The moderating role of employee resilience

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          Abstract

          The COVID-19 health disaster has had a dramatic impact on the global hospitality industry, affecting millions of people. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of job insecurity on hotel employees’ anxiety and depression, and whether these psychological strains could influence employees’ self-rated task performance during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also examine the moderating role of hotel employees’ resilience in this context.

          The hypotheses were examined by collecting data from 353 hotel employees currently working in the Canary Islands (Spain). The results highlight the significant effects of job insecurity on employees’ anxiety and depression levels. However, hotel employees’ task performance was not affected by their job insecurity or by their anxiety and depression. In addition, employees’ resilience has a moderating effect as it reduces the negative influence of job insecurity on depression. Finally, the discussion section sets out various theoretical and practical implications of the findings.

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          Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error

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            Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC).

            Resilience may be viewed as a measure of stress coping ability and, as such, could be an important target of treatment in anxiety, depression, and stress reactions. We describe a new rating scale to assess resilience. The Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (CD-RISC) comprises of 25 items, each rated on a 5-point scale (0-4), with higher scores reflecting greater resilience. The scale was administered to subjects in the following groups: community sample, primary care outpatients, general psychiatric outpatients, clinical trial of generalized anxiety disorder, and two clinical trials of PTSD. The reliability, validity, and factor analytic structure of the scale were evaluated, and reference scores for study samples were calculated. Sensitivity to treatment effects was examined in subjects from the PTSD clinical trials. The scale demonstrated good psychometric properties and factor analysis yielded five factors. A repeated measures ANOVA showed that an increase in CD-RISC score was associated with greater improvement during treatment. Improvement in CD-RISC score was noted in proportion to overall clinical global improvement, with greatest increase noted in subjects with the highest global improvement and deterioration in CD-RISC score in those with minimal or no global improvement. The CD-RISC has sound psychometric properties and distinguishes between those with greater and lesser resilience. The scale demonstrates that resilience is modifiable and can improve with treatment, with greater improvement corresponding to higher levels of global improvement. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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              When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Hosp Manag
                Int J Hosp Manag
                International Journal of Hospitality Management
                Elsevier Ltd.
                0278-4319
                1873-4693
                28 January 2021
                April 2021
                28 January 2021
                : 94
                : 102868
                Affiliations
                [a ]Institute of Tourism and Sustainable Economic Development (Tides), Spain
                [b ]Department of Business Administration and Tourism, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Canary Islands), Spain
                [c ]Department of Marketing, Events & Tourism, University of Greenwich, Maritime Greenwich Campus, Old Royal Naval College, London, United Kingdom
                [d ]Department of Public Law, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Canary Islands), Spain
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: Department of Business Administration and Tourism, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Canary Islands), Spain.
                Article
                S0278-4319(21)00011-6 102868
                10.1016/j.ijhm.2021.102868
                8631805
                34866743
                e1533cda-9c45-4314-8616-71a80045d06d
                © 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                History
                : 17 June 2020
                : 3 January 2021
                : 7 January 2021
                Categories
                Article

                job insecurity,task performance,anxiety,depression,resilience

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