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      New Imaging Techniques of Fat, Muscle and Liver within the Context of Determining Insulin Sensitivity

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          Abstract

          Body fat distribution and ectopic fat deposition are important determinants of insulin sensitivity. Fat deposition in muscle and the liver, in particular, has been found to impair insulin signalling in these insulin-sensitive tissues. Thus, exact quantification of fat content may help to distinguish between different sites of insulin resistance. Increased fat deposition in the visceral compartment compared with the subcutaneous depot also represents an important factor leading to insulin resistance. Recent data clearly showed that visceral fat is a strong determinant of liver fat content. Exact quantification of fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy may help to define distinct ‘fat-distribution phenotypes’. This may allow a search for new candidate genes for type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify, at an early stage, individuals at risk for decline in insulin sensitivity.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Intramyocellular lipid concentrations are correlated with insulin sensitivity in humans: a 1H NMR spectroscopy study.

          Recent muscle biopsy studies have shown a relation between intramuscular lipid content and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to test this relation in humans by using a novel proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy technique, which enables non-invasive and rapid (approximately 45 min) determination of intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content. Normal weight non-diabetic adults (n = 23, age 29+/-2 years. BMI = 24.1+/-0.5 kg/m2) were studied using cross-sectional analysis. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by a 2-h hyperinsulinaemic (approximately 450 pmol/l)-euglycaemic (approximately 5 mmol/l) clamp test. Intramyocellular lipid concentrations were determined by using localized 1H NMR spectroscopy of soleus muscle. Simple linear regression analysis showed an inverse correlation (r = -0.579, p = 0.0037) [corrected] between intramyocellular lipid content and M-value (100-120 min of clamp) as well as between fasting plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentration and M-value (r = -0.54, p = 0.0267). Intramyocellular lipid content was not related to BMI, age and fasting plasma concentrations of triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, glucose or insulin. These results show that intramyocellular lipid concentration, as assessed non invasively by localized 1H NMR spectroscopy, is a good indicator of whole body insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic, non-obese humans.
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            Disruption of adiponectin causes insulin resistance and neointimal formation.

            The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin has been proposed to play important roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, and it has been reported to exhibit putative antiatherogenic properties in vitro. In this study we generated adiponectin-deficient mice to directly investigate whether adiponectin has a physiological protective role against diabetes and atherosclerosis in vivo. Heterozygous adiponectin-deficient (adipo(+/-)) mice showed mild insulin resistance, while homozygous adiponectin-deficient (adipo(-/-)) mice showed moderate insulin resistance with glucose intolerance despite body weight gain similar to that of wild-type mice. Moreover, adipo(-/-) mice showed 2-fold more neointimal formation in response to external vascular cuff injury than wild-type mice (p = 0.01). This study provides the first direct evidence that adiponectin plays a protective role against insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in vivo.
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              Intramyocellular triglyceride content is a determinant of in vivo insulin resistance in humans: a 1H-13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment in offspring of type 2 diabetic parents.

              Insulin resistance is the best prediction factor for the clinical onset of type 2 diabetes. It was suggested that intramuscular triglyceride store may be a primary pathogenic factor for its development. To test this hypothesis, 14 young lean offspring of type 2 diabetic parents, a model of in vivo insulin resistance with increased risk to develop diabetes, and 14 healthy subjects matched for anthropomorphic parameters and life habits were studied with 1) euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to assess whole body insulin sensitivity, 2) localized 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the soleus (higher content of fiber type I, insulin sensitive) and tibialis anterior (higher content of fiber type IIb, less insulin sensitive) muscles to assess intramyocellular triglyceride content, 3) 13C NMR of the calf subcutaneous adipose tissue to assess composition in saturated/unsaturated carbons of triglyceride fatty acid chains, and 4) dual X-ray energy absorption to assess body composition. Offspring of diabetic parents, notwithstanding normal fat content and distribution, were characterized by insulin resistance and increased intramyocellular triglyceride content in the soleus (P < 0.01) but not in the tibialis anterior (P = 0.19), but showed a normal content of saturated/unsaturated carbons in the fatty acid chain of subcutaneous adipocytes. Stepwise regression analysis selected intramyocellular triglyceride soleus content and plasma free fatty acid levels as the main predictors of whole body insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy revealed intramyocellular abnormalities of lipid metabolism associated with whole body insulin resistance in subjects at high risk of developing diabetes, and might be useful tools for noninvasively monitoring these alterations in diabetes and prediabetic states.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8063-2
                978-3-318-01309-2
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2005
                February 2006
                27 January 2006
                : 64
                : Suppl 3
                : 38-44
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine, and bSection on Experimental Radiology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany
                Article
                89316 Horm Res 2005;64:38–44
                10.1159/000089316
                16439843
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 54, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Insulin Sensitivity: Methods

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