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      Treatment of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation using autogenous semitendinosus tendon graft and endobutton technique

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          The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of autogenous semitendinosus graft and endobutton technique, and compare with hook plate in treatment of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation.


          From April 2012 to April 2013, we treated 46 patients with Rockwood type III AC joint dislocation. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group A was treated using a hook plate and Group B with autogenous semitendinosus graft and endobutton technique. All participants were followed up for 12 months. Radiographic examinations were performed every 2 months postoperatively, and clinical evaluation was performed using the Constant–Murley score at the last follow-up.


          Results indicated that patients in Group B showed higher mean scores (90.3±5.4) than Group A (80.4±11.5) in terms of Constant–Murley score ( P=0.001). Group B patients scored higher in terms of pain ( P=0.002), activities ( P=0.02), range of motion ( P<0.001), and strength ( P=0.004). In Group A, moderate pain was reported by 2 (8.7%) and mild pain by 8 (34.8%) patients. Mild pain was reported by 1 (4.3%) patient in Group B. All patients in Group B maintained complete reduction, while 2 (8.7%) patients in Group A experienced partial reduction loss. Two patients (8.7%) encountered acromial osteolysis on latest radiographs, with moderate shoulder pain and limited range of motion.


          Autogenous semitendinosus graft and endobutton technique showed better results compared with the hook plate method and exhibited advantages of fewer complications such as permanent pain and acromial osteolysis.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Evaluation and treatment of acromioclavicular joint injuries.

          Acromioclavicular joint injuries and, more specifically, separations are commonplace both in general practice and during athletic participation. This article reviews the traditional classification as well as the clinical evaluation of patients with acute and chronic acromioclavicular joint separations. It also highlights many recent advances, principally in the anatomy and biomechanics of the acromioclavicular joint ligamentous complex. The concept of increases in superior translation as well as disturbances in horizontal translation with injuries to this joint and ligaments are discussed. This information, coupled with the unpredictable long-term results with the Weaver-Dunn procedure and its modifications, have prompted many recent biomechanical studies evaluating potential improvements in the surgical management of acute and chronic injuries. The authors present these recent works investigating cyclic loading and ultimate failure of traditional reconstructions, augmentations, use of free graft, and the more recent anatomic reconstruction of the conoid and trapezoid ligaments. The clinical results (largely retrospective), including acromioclavicular joint repair, reconstruction and augmentation with the coracoclavicular ligament, supplemental sutures, and the use of free autogenous grafts, are summarized. Finally, complications and the concept of the failed distal clavicle resection and reconstruction are addressed. The intent is to provide a current, in-depth treatise on all aspects of acromioclavicular joint complex injuries to include anatomy, biomechanics, benchmark studies on instability and reconstruction, clinical and radiographic evaluation, and to present the most recent clinical research on surgical outcomes.
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            A biomechanical evaluation of an anatomical coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction.

            Despite numerous surgical techniques described, there have been few studies evaluating the biomechanical performance of acromioclavicular joint reconstructions. To compare a newly developed anatomical coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction with a modified Weaver-Dunn procedure and a recently described arthroscopic method using ultrastrong nonabsorbable suture material. Controlled laboratory study. Forty-two fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders (72.8 +/- 13.4 years) were randomly assigned to 3 groups: arthroscopic reconstruction, anatomical coracoclavicular reconstruction, and a modified Weaver-Dunn procedure. Bone mineral density was obtained on all specimens. Specimens were tested to 70 N in 3 directions, anterior, posterior, and superior, comparing the intact to the reconstructed states. Superior cyclic loading at 70 N for 3000 cycles was then performed at a rate of 1 Hz, followed by a load to failure test (120 mm/min) to simulate physiologic states at the acromioclavicular joint. In comparison to the intact state, the modified Weaver-Dunn procedure had significantly (P < .05) greater laxity than the anatomical coracoclavicular reconstruction or the arthroscopic reconstruction. There were no significant differences in bone mineral density (g/cm(2)), load to failure, superior migration over 3000 cycles, or superior displacement. The anatomical coracoclavicular reconstruction had significantly less (P < .05) anterior and posterior translation than the modified Weaver-Dunn procedure. The arthroscopic reconstruction yielded significantly less anterior displacement (P < .05) than the modified Weaver-Dunn procedure. The anatomical coracoclavicular reconstruction has less anterior and posterior translation and more closely approximates the intact state, restoring function of the acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments. A more anatomical reconstruction using a free tendon graft of both the trapezoid and conoid ligaments may provide a stronger, permanent biologic solution for dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint. This reconstruction may minimize recurrent subluxation and residual pain and permit earlier rehabilitation.
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              Rockwood type III acromioclavicular dislocation: surgical versus conservative treatment.

              The best treatment for Rockwood type III injuries is still controversial. During a retrospective study, 24 patients who were treated surgically with a hook plate and 17 conservatively treated patients were examined with a mean follow-up of 34 months. The Oxford Shoulder Score, Simple Shoulder Test, and Constant score were assessed at the follow-up examination. Stress radiographs of both shoulders were taken, and the coracoclavicular distance, as well as the width of the acromioclavicular joint, was measured. The mean Constant score was 80.7 in the conservatively treated group and 90.4 in the group that underwent surgery. The mean coracoclavicular distance was 15.9 mm in the conservatively treated group and 12.1 mm in the surgically treated group. These differences were significant (P < .05, Mann-Whitney U test and Student t test). In this study, better results were achieved by surgical treatment with the hook plate than by conservative treatment.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                11 January 2016
                : 12
                : 47-51
                Department of Orthopedics, the People’s Hospital of Huangpi District, Wuhan City, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Gang Ye, Department of Orthopedics, the People’s Hospital of Huangpi District, Number 259, QianChuan, BaiXiu Street, Huangpi District, Wuhan City 430300, People’s Republic of China, Email yegangwh@ 123456yeah.net
                © 2016 Ye et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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