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      Comparison of the sensitivity of coprological methods in detecting Anoplocephala perfoliata invasions

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          The autopsy of 487 slaughter horses revealed the presence of Anoplocephala perfoliata in 36 animals. The invasions varied in the intensity (3 to 2,069 tapeworms) and in the level of tapeworms’ proglottid maturity. Twenty nine horses were found to contain tapeworms with gravid proglottid. Fecal samples collected from the rectum were tested using following techniques: flotation with solution-saturated NaCl, decantation, McMaster’s, and modified sedimentation-flotation methods (50 g feces samples, flotation solution-saturated NaCl and sucrose, specific gravity 1.25 g/ml). The number of A. perfoliata positive fecal samples was significantly higher using the sedimentation-flotation methods 21 (58.33 %) than flotation 6 (16.66 %), decantation 3 (8.33 %), and McMaster’s 1 (2.77 %) techniques. The sensitivities of the coprological methods during the patent period were 20.69, 10.34, 3.45, and 72.41 % for the flotation, decantation, McMaster’s, and sedimentation-flotation method, respectively. Sedimentation–flotation techniques proved to be more sensitive than other one. The lowest intensity of invasion possible to detect using this method was nine tapeworms with gravid proglottid.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Epidemiology, clinical manifestations and diagnosis of zoonotic cestode infections: an update.

           W Raether,  Kai Hänel (2003)
          This paper reviews the literature on zoonotic cestode infections with specific reference to the years 1999-2003. The sources and prevalence of various zoonotic tapeworm infections caused by adult and larval stages of the genera Taenia, Echinococcus, Diphyllobothrium, Hymenolepis and Dipylidium continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality, not only in most underdeveloped countries but also in industrialized countries, particularly in rural areas or among immigrant groups from endemic areas. The review gives a detailed report on recent molecular epidemiological studies on the taxonomy and phylogenetic variations in Echinococcus granulosus, immunological tests and imaging techniques used in epidemiological surveys and clinical investigations of important adult and larval tapeworm infections of animals and humans. Larval stages or metacestodes of Taenia solium, Echinococcus spp. and pseudophyllidean tapeworms (Spirometra syn. Diphyllobothrium spp.) may reside in various tissues of their intermediate hosts, including humans. In particular, Cysticercus cellulosae (T. solium) and the larvae of E. granulosus, and E. multilocularis, which are predominantly located in the liver, lungs and central nervous system forming various types of cysts, lead to a complex of systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, cystic echinococcosis and alveolar echinococcosis, respectively. Relatively rare clinical manifestations are seen in the muscles, subcutaneous tissue, spleen, kidneys, bones and body cavities.
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            Anoplocephala perfoliata of horses--significant scope for further research, improved diagnosis and control.

            Anoplocephala perfoliata is the commonest tapeworm parasite of horses and is incriminated as a significant cause of clinical disease (e.g., ileocaecal intussusception, caeco-caecal intussusception and/or caecal perforation), particularly in horses chronically infected with large numbers of worms. The high prevalence (approximately 20-80%) of the parasite in some countries suggests an increased risk of clinical cases. In spite of research, there is still a paucity of information regarding the pathogenesis of the disease, the epidemiology of the parasite in different geographical regions and there are significant limitations with the diagnosis of infection. The present article provides an account of the biology, epidemiology and pathogenic effects of A. perfoliata, the diagnosis of infection and treatment. It highlights some gaps in knowledge of the parasite and the disease it causes, and suggests opportunities for future research and prospects for improved diagnosis, prevention and control.
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              Prevalence, intensity and seasonality of gastrointestinal parasites in abattoir horses in Germany.

              Prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites were studied through a longitudinal survey in 400 horses over a 17-month period in an abattoir in Germany. Three hundred and ten horses (77.5 %) were demonstrated harbouring endoparasites either by direct recovery of parasites from the digestive tract and/or in terms of faecal egg counts (strongyles). The following parasites were found (percentage prevalence, range of counts): Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae (2.25 %, 1-154), Gasterophilus nasalis larvae (0.25 %, 44), Trichostrongylus axei (11.0 %, 1-3,620), Habronema majus (8.0 %; 1-422), Habronema muscae (26.5 %, 1-3,563), Habronema spp. fourth-stage larvae (5.5 %; 1-1,365), Parascaris equorum (total prevalence 11.3 %; adults 8.8 %, 1-178; fourth-stage larvae 2.5 %, 5-2,320), Anoplocephala perfoliata (28.5 %, 1-2,013) and Paranoplocephala mamillana (1.0 %, 1-11). Strongyle eggs (≥10 eggs per gram of faeces) were recorded in 60.8 % of the horses (10-6,450 eggs per gram of faeces).Prevalences of infection with T. axei, P. equorum and strongyles did not show a correlation to specific seasons. In contrast, a significant variation among seasons of collection was shown for the infection rates of Habronema spp. (p < 0.05) and A. perfoliata (p < 0.001). Seasonal prevalence of Habronema spp. infection was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in summer (39.0 %), autumn (34.8 %) and winter (36.5 %) than in spring (18.7 %), and A. perfoliata were significantly (p < 0.001) more often recorded during autumn (36.1 %) and winter (36.5 %) than in spring (17.3 %) and summer (15.9 %). Prevalences of T. axei, Habronema spp., strongyles and A. perfoliata in male and female horses were almost alike, but ascarids were significantly (p = 0.025) more often recorded in male than in female horses.

                Author and article information

                Parasitol Res
                Parasitol. Res
                Parasitology Research
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                29 April 2014
                29 April 2014
                : 113
                : 2401-2406
                University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Lublin, Poland
                © The Author(s) 2014

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

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                © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014


                anoplocephala perfoliata, gravid proglottid, coprological methods, sensitivity


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