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    Acute oral magnesium application: Significant effects on effort and performance in sport

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        Abstract. 17 male officer trainees (between 20 and 24 years of age) of the Theresan Military Academy in Wiener Neustadt (Austria) have been subjected to a standardized 2,400-m run; before and after the run, capillary blood samples for determination of pCO 2 , pO 2 , BE, Mg, and lactate were drawn and their heart rate was determined. On the next day, the candidates received 150 mg of Mg as an effervescent tablet after blood sampling, and 1 hour later, after another sampling, the same 2,400-m run as before was performed again with a consecutive sampling. It turned out that all parameters measured out of the samples before the run did not differ significantly, just as the samples after the run did not differ between Mg-treated and untreated subjects. However, Mg changes due to the run were much less uniform in Mg-treated subjects. Linear correlations, which developed significantly between ionized Mg, pO 2 , pCO 2 , BE, and lactate, as well as significant linear correlations between heart rate and lactate, and also between Mg and running time (our performance marker), were in fact always seen in untreated subjects but never in Mg-treated participants. We deduce that acute Mg application before sport does not enhance the more easily fluctuating ionized fraction, but enriches the protein- and complex-bound Mg fraction within the blood so that ionized Mg can be replenished from there, and only to a lesser degree from tissues, and limiting steps – characterized by linear relations between Mg and stress markers or between stress markers themselves – are abolished. By such an acute Mg application before sport, limiting steps brought about by Mg shortage are set aside by easily available Mg reserves in blood enriched by the preserved tissue Mg pool, all that opening out into significant influences upon effort and performance.

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        Most cited references 6

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        Metal ions play an important role in biological systems, and without their catalytic presence in trace or ultratrace amounts many essential co-factors for many biochemical reactions would not take place. However, they become toxic to cells when their concentrations surpass certain optimal (natural) levels. Copper is an essential metal. Catalytic copper, because of its mobilization and redox activity, is believed to play a central role in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as O2-* and *OH radicals, that bind very fast to DNA, and produce damage by breaking the DNA strands or modifying the bases and/or deoxyribose leading to carcinogenesis. The chemistry and biochemistry of copper is briefly accounted together with its involvement in cancer and other diseases.
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          Serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels are known to increase in several malignancies such as osteosarcomas, some gastrointestinal tumors, and lung cancer. In this study serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels in 40 patients with primary brain tumors were studied. Both parameters were increased in sera of patients with tumors in comparison with healthy subjects or patients with non-tumorous neurological diseases. It is concluded that copper and ceruloplasmin represent a good complement to some other nonspecific parameters in evaluating the activity of malignancy and the therapeutic results.
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            Influence of magnesium status and magnesium intake on the blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

            This study was undertaken to assess magnesium intake and magnesium status in patients with type 2 diabetes, and to identify the parameters that best predict alterations in fasting glucose and plasma magnesium. A cross-sectional study was carried out in patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 51; 53.6 ± 10.5 y) selected within the inclusion factors, at the University Hospital Onofre Lopes. Magnesium intake was assessed by three 24-h recalls. Urine, plasma and erythrocytes magnesium, fasting and 2-h postprandial glucose, HbA1, microalbuminuria, proteinuria, and serum and urine creatinine were measured. Mean magnesium intake (9.37 ± 1.76 mmol/d), urine magnesium (2.80 ± 1.51 mmol/d), plasma magnesium (0.71 ± 0.08 mmol/L) and erythrocyte magnesium (1.92 ± 0.23 mmol/L) levels were low. Seventy-seven percent of participants presented one or more magnesium status parameters below the cut-off points of 3.00 mmol/L for urine, 0.75 mmol/L for plasma and 1.65 mmol/L for erythrocytes. Subjects presented poor blood glucose control with fasting glucose of 8.1 ± 3.7 mmol/L, 2-h postprandial glucose of 11.1 ± 5.1 mmol/L, and HbA1 of 11.4 ± 3.0%. The parameters that influenced fasting glucose were urine, plasma and dietary magnesium, while plasma magnesium was influenced by creatinine clearance. Magnesium status was influenced by kidney depuration and was altered in patients with type 2 diabetes, and magnesium showed to play an important role in blood glucose control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

              Author and article information

              Trace Elements and Electrolytes
              Dustri-Verlgag Dr. Karl Feistle
              October 01 2017
              : 34
              : 10
              : 141-148
              © 2017


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