12
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Mediators and Patterns of Muscle Loss in Chronic Systemic Inflammation

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Besides its primary function in locomotion, skeletal muscle (SKM), which represents up to half of human's weight, also plays a fundamental homeostatic role. Through the secretion of soluble peptides, or myokines, SKM interacts with major organs involved in metabolic processes. In turn, metabolic cues from these organs are received by muscle cells, which adapt their response accordingly. This is done through an intricate intracellular signaling network characterized by the cross-talking between anabolic and catabolic pathways. A fine regulation of the network is required to protect the organism from an excessive energy expenditure. Systemic inflammation evokes a catabolic reaction in SKM known as sarcopenia. In turn this response comprises several mechanisms, which vary depending on the nature of the insult and its magnitude. In this regard, aging, chronic inflammatory systemic diseases, osteoarthritis and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies can lead to muscle loss. Interestingly, sarcopenia may persist despite remission of chronic inflammation, an issue which warrants further research. The Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) system stands as a major participant in muscle loss during systemic inflammation, while it is also a well-recognized orchestrator of muscle cell turnover. Herein we summarize current knowledge about models of sarcopenia, their triggers and major mediators and their effect on both protein and cell growth yields. Also, the dual action of the JAK/STAT pathway in muscle mass changes is discussed. We highlight the need to unravel the precise contribution of this system to sarcopenia in order to design targeted therapeutic strategies.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 121

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Muscles, exercise and obesity: skeletal muscle as a secretory organ.

          During the past decade, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ. Accordingly, we have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert either autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as myokines. The finding that the muscle secretome consists of several hundred secreted peptides provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones and brain. However, some myokines exert their effects within the muscle itself. Thus, myostatin, LIF, IL-6 and IL-7 are involved in muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, whereas BDNF and IL-6 are involved in AMPK-mediated fat oxidation. IL-6 also appears to have systemic effects on the liver, adipose tissue and the immune system, and mediates crosstalk between intestinal L cells and pancreatic islets. Other myokines include the osteogenic factors IGF-1 and FGF-2; FSTL-1, which improves the endothelial function of the vascular system; and the PGC-1α-dependent myokine irisin, which drives brown-fat-like development. Studies in the past few years suggest the existence of yet unidentified factors, secreted from muscle cells, which may influence cancer cell growth and pancreas function. Many proteins produced by skeletal muscle are dependent upon contraction; therefore, physical inactivity probably leads to an altered myokine response, which could provide a potential mechanism for the association between sedentary behaviour and many chronic diseases.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            IKKbeta/NF-kappaB activation causes severe muscle wasting in mice.

            Muscle wasting accompanies aging and pathological conditions ranging from cancer, cachexia, and diabetes to denervation and immobilization. We show that activation of NF-kappaB, through muscle-specific transgenic expression of activated IkappaB kinase beta (MIKK), causes profound muscle wasting that resembles clinical cachexia. In contrast, no overt phenotype was seen upon muscle-specific inhibition of NF-kappaB through expression of IkappaBalpha superrepressor (MISR). Muscle loss was due to accelerated protein breakdown through ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. Expression of the E3 ligase MuRF1, a mediator of muscle atrophy, was increased in MIKK mice. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of the IKKbeta/NF-kappaB/MuRF1 pathway reversed muscle atrophy. Denervation- and tumor-induced muscle loss were substantially reduced and survival rates improved by NF-kappaB inhibition in MISR mice, consistent with a critical role for NF-kappaB in the pathology of muscle wasting and establishing it as an important clinical target for the treatment of muscle atrophy.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              NF-kappaB-induced loss of MyoD messenger RNA: possible role in muscle decay and cachexia.

              MyoD regulates skeletal muscle differentiation (SMD) and is essential for repair of damaged tissue. The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) is activated by the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a mediator of skeletal muscle wasting in cachexia. Here, the role of NF-kappaB in cytokine-induced muscle degeneration was explored. In differentiating C2C12 myocytes, TNF-induced activation of NF-kappaB inhibited SMD by suppressing MyoD mRNA at the posttranscriptional level. In contrast, in differentiated myotubes, TNF plus interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) signaling was required for NF-kappaB-dependent down-regulation of MyoD and dysfunction of skeletal myofibers. MyoD mRNA was also down-regulated by TNF and IFN-gamma expression in mouse muscle in vivo. These data elucidate a possible mechanism that may underlie the skeletal muscle decay in cachexia.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Physiol
                Front Physiol
                Front. Physiol.
                Frontiers in Physiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-042X
                24 April 2018
                2018
                : 9
                Affiliations
                Bone and Joint Research Unit, Service of Rheumatology, IIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Autonomous University of Madrid , Madrid, Spain
                Author notes

                Edited by: Alexandrina Ferreira Mendes, University of Coimbra, Portugal

                Reviewed by: Luca De Toni, Università degli Studi di Padova, Italy; Anna Picca, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Italy; Massimo Negro, Centro di Medicina dello Sport Voghera, Università degli Studi di Pavia, Italy

                *Correspondence: Raquel Largo rlargo@ 123456fjd.es

                This article was submitted to Integrative Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Physiology

                Article
                10.3389/fphys.2018.00409
                5928215
                Copyright © 2018 Pérez-Baos, Prieto-Potin, Román-Blas, Sánchez-Pernaute, Largo and Herrero-Beaumont.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 160, Pages: 14, Words: 13120
                Funding
                Funded by: Instituto de Salud Carlos III 10.13039/501100004587
                Award ID: PI13/00570
                Award ID: PI15/00340
                Award ID: PI16/00065
                Funded by: European Regional Development Fund 10.13039/501100008530
                Categories
                Physiology
                Review

                Anatomy & Physiology

                skeletal muscle, turnover, anabolism, catabolism, sarcopenia, myokines, inflammation

                Comments

                Comment on this article