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      Self-Esteem Relates to Expecting Others to See Us How We See Ourselves

      research-article
      * , a , , a
      Social Psychological Bulletin
      PsychOpen
      self-esteem, self-evaluation, self-verification, self-consistency, the self

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          Abstract

          We examined whether self-esteem relates to coherence between self-evaluations and anticipated evaluations by others. In two studies (total N = 279), participants twice completed a measure of their personal attributes, once from their own standpoints and once from the perspective of someone they anticipated meeting, separated by a 25-minute distractor task. Supporting our preregistered predictions, the within-person association between self- and other-ratings was stronger as a function of between-person increases in self-esteem. These effects remained after statistically controlling for self-concept clarity and for fear of negative evaluation, both of which related meaningfully to self-esteem. Together, these findings indicate that persons high in self-esteem anticipate that others will evaluate them consistently with how they evaluate themselves.

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          Most cited references25

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          Universal dimensions of social cognition: warmth and competence.

          Like all perception, social perception reflects evolutionary pressures. In encounters with conspecifics, social animals must determine, immediately, whether the "other" is friend or foe (i.e. intends good or ill) and, then, whether the "other" has the ability to enact those intentions. New data confirm these two universal dimensions of social cognition: warmth and competence. Promoting survival, these dimensions provide fundamental social structural answers about competition and status. People perceived as warm and competent elicit uniformly positive emotions and behavior, whereas those perceived as lacking warmth and competence elicit uniform negativity. People classified as high on one dimension and low on the other elicit predictable, ambivalent affective and behavioral reactions. These universal dimensions explain both interpersonal and intergroup social cognition.
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            • Record: found
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            Measuring Global Self-Esteem: Construct Validation of a Single-Item Measure and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

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              • Article: not found

              Social relationships and health.

              Recent scientific work has established both a theoretical basis and strong empirical evidence for a causal impact of social relationships on health. Prospective studies, which control for baseline health status, consistently show increased risk of death among persons with a low quantity, and sometimes low quality, of social relationships. Experimental and quasi-experimental studies of humans and animals also suggest that social isolation is a major risk factor for mortality from widely varying causes. The mechanisms through which social relationships affect health and the factors that promote or inhibit the development and maintenance of social relationships remain to be explored.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                SPB
                Soc Psychol Bull
                Social Psychological Bulletin
                Soc. Psychol. Bull.
                PsychOpen
                2569-653X
                13 November 2019
                2019
                : 14
                : 3
                : e36957
                Affiliations
                [a ] Stony Brook University , Stony Brook, NY, USA
                [2]SWPS University of Social Science and Humanities, Sopot, Poland
                Author notes
                [* ]Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-2500, USA. ashley.araiza@ 123456stonybrook.edu
                [Author Note]

                Antonio Freitas conceptualized these studies, collected the data, and prepared the data for analysis; Antonio Freitas and Ashley Araiza analyzed the data; Ashley Araiza wrote the first draft of the manuscript and both Antonio Freitas and Ashley Araiza revised the manuscript.

                Article
                spb.v14i3.36957
                10.32872/spb.v14i3.36957
                e17f1bfa-c930-45e1-9948-c4a09189b5c1
                Copyright @ 2019

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 4.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 07 June 2019
                : 27 August 2019
                Categories
                Research Article
                Data
                Preregistration

                Psychology
                self-consistency,self-esteem,self-verification,self-evaluation,the self
                Psychology
                self-consistency, self-esteem, self-verification, self-evaluation, the self

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