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      An Overview of the Theory and Applications of Metasurfaces: The Two-Dimensional Equivalents of Metamaterials

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          Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity

          We demonstrate a composite medium, based on a periodic array of interspaced conducting nonmagnetic split ring resonators and continuous wires, that exhibits a frequency region in the microwave regime with simultaneously negative values of effective permeability &mgr;(eff)(omega) and permittivity varepsilon(eff)(omega). This structure forms a "left-handed" medium, for which it has been predicted that such phenomena as the Doppler effect, Cherenkov radiation, and even Snell's law are inverted. It is now possible through microwave experiments to test for these effects using this new metamaterial.
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            Active terahertz metamaterial devices.

            The development of artificially structured electromagnetic materials, termed metamaterials, has led to the realization of phenomena that cannot be obtained with natural materials. This is especially important for the technologically relevant terahertz (1 THz = 10(12) Hz) frequency regime; many materials inherently do not respond to THz radiation, and the tools that are necessary to construct devices operating within this range-sources, lenses, switches, modulators and detectors-largely do not exist. Considerable efforts are underway to fill this 'THz gap' in view of the useful potential applications of THz radiation. Moderate progress has been made in THz generation and detection; THz quantum cascade lasers are a recent example. However, techniques to control and manipulate THz waves are lagging behind. Here we demonstrate an active metamaterial device capable of efficient real-time control and manipulation of THz radiation. The device consists of an array of gold electric resonator elements (the metamaterial) fabricated on a semiconductor substrate. The metamaterial array and substrate together effectively form a Schottky diode, which enables modulation of THz transmission by 50 per cent, an order of magnitude improvement over existing devices.
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              Optical negative-index metamaterials

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
                IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag.
                Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
                1045-9243
                April 2012
                April 2012
                : 54
                : 2
                : 10-35
                Article
                10.1109/MAP.2012.6230714
                e1844c11-dab4-4399-b9b5-2583ea51e361
                © 2012
                History

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