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      SREBP-1c Transcription Factor and Lipid Homeostasis: Clinical Perspective

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          Abstract

          Insulin has long-term effects on glucose and lipid metabolism through its control on the expression of specific genes. In insulin sensitive tissues and particularly in the liver, the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) transduces the insulin signal. SREBP-1c is a transcription factor which is synthetized as a precursor in the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and which requires post-translational modification to yield its transcriptionally active nuclear form. Insulin activates the transcription and the proteolytic maturation of SREBP-1c. SREBP-1c induces the expression of a family of genes involved in glucose utilization and fatty acid synthesis and can be considered as a thrifty gene. Since a high lipid availability is deleterious for insulin sensitivity and secretion, a role for SREBP-1c in dyslipidaemia and type 2 diabetes has been considered in genetic studies and some association demonstrated. Finally, SREBP-1c could also participate to the hepatic steatosis observed in humans and related to alcohol consumption and hyperhomocysteinaemia, two pathologies which are concomitant with a stress of the endoplasmic reticulum and an insulin-independent SREBP-1c activation.

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          Most cited references 64

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          Regulation of mouse sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c gene (SREBP-1c) by oxysterol receptors, LXRalpha and LXRbeta.

          The liver X receptors (LXRs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that are bound and activated by oxysterols. These receptors serve as sterol sensors to regulate the transcription of gene products that control intracellular cholesterol homeostasis through catabolism and transport. In this report, we describe a novel LXR target, the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c gene (SREBP-1c), which encodes a membrane-bound transcription factor of the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper family. SREBP-1c expression was markedly increased in mouse tissues in an LXR-dependent manner by dietary cholesterol and synthetic agonists for both LXR and its heterodimer partner, the retinoid X receptor (RXR). Expression of the related gene products, SREBP-1a and SREBP-2, were not increased. Analysis of the mouse SREBP-1c gene promoter revealed an RXR/LXR DNA-binding site that is essential for this regulation. The transcriptional increase in SREBP-1c mRNA by RXR/LXR was accompanied by a similar increase in the level of the nuclear, active form of the SREBP-1c protein and an increase in fatty acid synthesis. Because this active form of SREBP-1c controls the transcription of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, our results reveal a unique regulatory interplay between cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.
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            SREBP-1, a membrane-bound transcription factor released by sterol-regulated proteolysis.

            Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), a member of the basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-ZIP) family of transcription factors, is synthesized as a 125 kd precursor that is attached to the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum. In sterol-depleted cells, the membrane-bound precursor is cleaved to generate a soluble NH2-terminal fragment (apparent molecular mass, 68 kd) that translocates to the nucleus. This fragment, which includes the bHLH-ZIP domain, activates transcription of the genes for the LDL receptor and HMG CoA synthase. Sterols inhibit the cleavage of SREBP-1, and the 68 kd nuclear form is rapidly catabolized, thereby reducing transcription. ALLN, an inhibitor of neutral cysteine proteases, blocks the breakdown of the 68 kd form and superinduces sterol-regulated genes. Sterol-regulated proteolysis of a membrane-bound transcription factor provides a novel mechanism by which transcription can be regulated by membrane lipids.
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              Insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus in transgenic mice expressing nuclear SREBP-1c in adipose tissue: model for congenital generalized lipodystrophy.

              Overexpression of the nuclear form of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (nSREBP-1c/ADD1) in cultured 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was shown previously to promote adipocyte differentiation. Here, we produced transgenic mice that overexpress nSREBP-1c in adipose tissue under the control of the adipocyte-specific aP2 enhancer/promoter. A syndrome with the following features was observed: (1) Disordered differentiation of adipose tissue. White fat failed to differentiate fully, and the size of white fat depots was markedly decreased. Brown fat was hypertrophic and contained fat-laden cells resembling immature white fat. Levels of mRNA encoding adipocyte differentiation markers (C/EBPalpha, PPARgamma, adipsin, leptin, UCP1) were reduced, but levels of Pref-1 and TNFalpha were increased. (2) Marked insulin resistance with 60-fold elevation in plasma insulin. (3) Diabetes mellitus with elevated blood glucose (>300 mg/dl) that failed to decline when insulin was injected. (4) Fatty liver from birth and elevated plasma triglyceride levels later in life. These mice exhibit many of the features of congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL), an autosomal recessive disorder in humans.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2007
                July 2007
                05 March 2007
                : 68
                : 2
                : 72-82
                Affiliations
                aInserm, UMR S 671, Centre de Recherches Biomédicales des Cordeliers, bUniversité Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, UMR S 671, Paris, France
                Article
                100426 Horm Res 2007;68:72–82
                10.1159/000100426
                17344645
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 90, Pages: 11
                Categories
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