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      Group based diabetes self-management education compared to routine treatment for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review with meta-analysis


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          Diabetes self-management education (DSME) can be delivered in many forms. Group based DSME is widespread due to being a cheaper method and the added advantages of having patient meet and discuss with each other. assess effects of group-based DSME compared to routine treatment on clinical, lifestyle and psychosocial outcomes in type-2 diabetes patients.


          A systematic review with meta-analysis. Computerised bibliographic database were searched up to January 2008 for randomised controlled trials evaluating group-based DSME for adult type-2 diabetics versus routine treatment where the intervention had at least one session and =/>6 months follow-up. At least two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality.


          In total 21 studies (26 publications, 2833 participants) were included. Of all the participants 4 out of 10 were male, baseline age was 60 years, BMI 31.6, HbA1c 8.23%, diabetes duration 8 years and 82% used medication. For the main clinical outcomes, HbA1c was significantly reduced at 6 months (0.44% points; P = 0.0006, 13 studies, 1883 participants), 12 months (0.46% points; P = 0.001, 11 studies, 1503 participants) and 2 years (0.87% points; P < 0.00001, 3 studies, 397 participants) and fasting blood glucose levels were also significantly reduced at 12 months (1.26 mmol/l; P < 0.00001, 5 studies, 690 participants) but not at 6 months. For the main lifestyle outcomes, diabetes knowledge was improved significantly at 6 months (SMD 0.83; P = 0.00001, 6 studies, 768 participants), 12 months (SMD 0.85; P < 0.00001, 5 studies, 955 participants) and 2 years (SMD 1.59; P = 0.03, 2 studies, 355 participants) and self-management skills also improved significantly at 6 months (SMD 0.55; P = 0.01, 4 studies, 534 participants). For the main psychosocial outcomes, there were significant improvement for empowerment/self-efficacy (SMD 0.28, P = 0.01, 2 studies, 326 participants) after 6 months. For quality of life no conclusion could be drawn due to high heterogeneity. For the secondary outcomes there were significant improvements in patient satisfaction and body weight at 12 months for the intervention group. There were no differences between the groups in mortality rate, body mass index, blood pressure and lipid profile.


          Group-based DSME in people with type 2 diabetes results in improvements in clinical, lifestyle and psychosocial outcomes.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Effectiveness of Self-Management Training in Type 2 Diabetes: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials

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            Structured patient education: the diabetes X-PERT Programme makes a difference.

            To develop a patient-centred, group-based self-management programme (X-PERT), based on theories of empowerment and discovery learning, and to assess the effectiveness of the programme on clinical, lifestyle and psychosocial outcomes. Adults with Type 2 diabetes (n = 314), living in Burnley, Pendle or Rossendale, Lancashire, UK were randomized to either individual appointments (control group) (n = 157) or the X-PERT Programme (n = 157). X-PERT patients were invited to attend six 2-h group sessions of self-management education. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 4 and 14 months. One hundred and forty-nine participants (95%) attended the X-PERT Programme, with 128 (82%) attending four or more sessions. By 14 months the X-PERT group compared with the control group showed significant improvements in the mean HbA1c (- 0.6% vs. + 0.1%, repeated measures anova, P < 0.001). The number needed to treat (NNT) for preventing diabetes medication increase was 4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3, 7] and NNT for reducing diabetes medication was 7 (95% CI 5, 11). Statistically significant improvements were also shown in the X-PERT patients compared with the control patients for body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, total cholesterol, self-empowerment, diabetes knowledge, physical activity levels, foot care, fruit and vegetable intake, enjoyment of food and treatment satisfaction. Participation in the X-PERT Programme by adults with Type 2 diabetes was shown at 14 months to have led to improved glycaemic control, reduced total cholesterol level, body weight, BMI and waist circumference, reduced requirement for diabetes medication, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, enjoyment of food, knowledge of diabetes, self-empowerment, self-management skills and treatment satisfaction.
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              A 5-year randomized controlled study of learning, problem solving ability, and quality of life modifications in people with type 2 diabetes managed by group care.

              To study time course changes in knowledge, problem solving ability, and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes managed by group compared with individual care and education. We conducted a 5-year randomized controlled clinical trial of continuing systemic education delivered by group versus individual diabetes care in a hospital-based secondary care diabetes unit. There were 120 patients with non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes enrolled and randomly allocated to group or individual care. Eight did not start and 28 did not complete the study. The main outcome measures were knowledge of diabetes, problem solving ability, quality of life, HbA1c, BMI, and HDL cholesterol. Knowledge of diabetes and problem solving ability improved from year 1 with group care and worsened among control subjects (P<0.001 for both). Quality of life improved from year 2 with group care but worsened with individual care (P<0.001). HbA1c level progressively increased over 5 years among control subjects (+1.7%, 95% CI 1.1-2.2) but not group care patients (+0.1%, -0.5 to 0.4), in whom BMI decreased (-1.4, -2.0 to -0.7) and HDL cholesterol increased (+0.14 mmol/l, 0.07-0.22). Adults with type 2 diabetes can acquire specific knowledge and conscious behaviors if exposed to educational procedures and settings tailored to their needs. Traditional one-to-one care, although delivered according to optimized criteria, is associated with progressive deterioration of knowledge, problem solving ability, and quality of life. Better cognitive and psychosocial results are associated with more favorable clinical outcomes.

                Author and article information

                BMC Health Serv Res
                BMC Health Serv Res
                BMC Health Services Research
                BioMed Central
                23 July 2012
                : 12
                : 213
                [1 ]Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Post box 8905, Medisinsk teknisk forskningssenter, 7491, Trondheim, Norway
                [2 ]Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services, Oslo, Norway
                [3 ]Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
                Copyright ©2012 Steinsbekk et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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