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Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of oral rivaroxaban in healthy adult cats : Rivaroxaban in healthy cats

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      Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

      The use of warfarin reduces the rate of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation but requires frequent monitoring and dose adjustment. Rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, may provide more consistent and predictable anticoagulation than warfarin. In a double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 14,264 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who were at increased risk for stroke to receive either rivaroxaban (at a daily dose of 20 mg) or dose-adjusted warfarin. The per-protocol, as-treated primary analysis was designed to determine whether rivaroxaban was noninferior to warfarin for the primary end point of stroke or systemic embolism. In the primary analysis, the primary end point occurred in 188 patients in the rivaroxaban group (1.7% per year) and in 241 in the warfarin group (2.2% per year) (hazard ratio in the rivaroxaban group, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.96; P<0.001 for noninferiority). In the intention-to-treat analysis, the primary end point occurred in 269 patients in the rivaroxaban group (2.1% per year) and in 306 patients in the warfarin group (2.4% per year) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.03; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P=0.12 for superiority). Major and nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding occurred in 1475 patients in the rivaroxaban group (14.9% per year) and in 1449 in the warfarin group (14.5% per year) (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.11; P=0.44), with significant reductions in intracranial hemorrhage (0.5% vs. 0.7%, P=0.02) and fatal bleeding (0.2% vs. 0.5%, P=0.003) in the rivaroxaban group. In patients with atrial fibrillation, rivaroxaban was noninferior to warfarin for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism. There was no significant between-group difference in the risk of major bleeding, although intracranial and fatal bleeding occurred less frequently in the rivaroxaban group. (Funded by Johnson & Johnson and Bayer; ROCKET AF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00403767.).
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        Safety, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of single doses of BAY 59-7939, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor.

        There is a clinical need for new oral anticoagulants to prevent and treat thromboembolic diseases. Given its integral role in the coagulation cascade, factor Xa is a particularly promising target for new anticoagulation therapies. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of BAY 59--7939, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor. This single-center, randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study included 108 healthy white male subjects aged 19 to 45 years. Subjects received single oral doses of either BAY 59--7939 (1.25--80 mg) or placebo; in addition, 1 group received 2 doses of BAY 59--7939 (5--mg tablet and oral solution) or placebo in a crossover design. Oral BAY 59--7939 in single doses up to 80 mg was safe and well tolerated and was not associated with an increased risk of bleeding compared with placebo. Pharmacodynamic effects (inhibition of factor Xa activity, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and Hep Test) and plasma concentration profiles were dose-dependent. Maximum inhibition of factor Xa activity was achieved 1 to 4 hours after administration of BAY 59--7939 and ranged from 20% to 61% for the 5- to 80-mg doses. BAY 59--7939 selectively inhibited factor Xa activity; thrombin (factor IIa) and antithrombin were unaffected. Inhibition of factor Xa activity and prolongation of prothrombin time correlated well with BAY 59--7939 plasma concentrations (r=0.949 and 0.935, respectively). BAY 59--7939 was well tolerated with predictable pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics across a wide range of doses in healthy male subjects. BAY 59--7939 was shown to be an effective and specific factor Xa inhibitor.
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          Safety, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of BAY 59-7939--an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor--after multiple dosing in healthy male subjects.

          There is a clinical need for safe new oral anticoagulants. The safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of BAY 59-7939--a novel, oral, direct Factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor--were investigated in this single-center, placebo-controlled, single-blind, parallel-group, multiple-dose escalation study. Healthy male subjects (aged 20-45 years, body mass index 18.6-31.4 kg/m(2)) received oral BAY 59-7939 (n=8 per dose regimen) or placebo (n=4 per dose regimen) on days 0 and 3-7. Dosing regimens were 5 mg once, twice (bid), or three times daily, and 10 mg, 20 mg, or 30 mg bid. There were no clinically relevant changes in bleeding time or other safety variables across all doses and regimens. There was no dose-related increase in the frequency or severity of adverse events with BAY 59-7939. Maximum inhibition of FXa activity occurred after approximately 3 h, and inhibition was maintained for at least 12 h for all doses. Prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and HepTest were prolonged to a similar extent to inhibition of FXa activity for all doses. Dose-proportional pharmacokinetics (AUC(tau, norm) and C(max, norm)) were observed at steady state (day 7). Maximum plasma concentrations were achieved after 3-4 h. The terminal half-life of BAY 59-7939 was 5.7-9.2 h at steady state. There was no relevant accumulation at any dose. BAY 59-7939 was safe and well tolerated across the wide dose range studied, with predictable, dose-proportional pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and no relevant accumulation beyond steady state. These results support further investigation of BAY 59-7939 in phase II clinical trials.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine; University of Georgia; Athens GA 30602
            [2 ]the Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences; College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University; Ithaca NY 14850
            [3 ]Department of Drug Discovery and Development, Harrison School of Pharmacy; Auburn University; Auburn AL 36849
            [4 ]Pharmaceutical Specialties, Inc; Bogart GA 30622
            Journal
            Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
            Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
            Wiley
            14793261
            September 2016
            September 2016
            September 06 2016
            : 26
            : 5
            : 619-629
            10.1111/vec.12524
            © 2016

            http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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            Self URI (article page): http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/vec.12524

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