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Nd:YAG Laser Treatment for Extranasal Telangiectasias: A Retrospective Analysis of 38 Patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia and Review of the Literature

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S. Karger AG

Nd:YAG laser, Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, Extranasal telangiectasias

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      Background/Aims: Extranasal telangiectasiasare common amongsthereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) patients. Telangiectasias can be found at sites like the external nose, lips, oral cavity and fingers. Although not life threatening, they can be annoying for patients and lead to bleeding in some cases, necessitating treatment. Methods: The data of 38 HHT patients treated for extranasal telangiectasias during a period of 10 years by means of Nd:YAG laser were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The telangiectasias treated affected predominantly the tongue, facial skin and lips. During a minimum follow-up of 3 years, only 7 patients required a revision of surgery. Conclusion: This study shows that Nd:YAG laser constitutes a fast, safe and efficient therapeutic modality for the treatment of extranasal telangiectasias.

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      Most cited references 31

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      A combined syndrome of juvenile polyposis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia associated with mutations in MADH4 (SMAD4).

      Juvenile polyposis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia are autosomal dominant disorders with distinct and non-overlapping clinical features. The former, an inherited gastrointestinal malignancy predisposition, is caused by mutations in MADH4 (encoding SMAD4) or BMPR1A, and the latter is a vascular malformation disorder caused by mutations in ENG (endoglin) or ACVRL1 (ALK1). All four genes encode proteins involved in the transforming-growth-factor-beta signalling pathway. Although there are reports of patients and families with phenotypes of both disorders combined, the genetic aetiology of this association is unknown. Blood samples were collected from seven unrelated families segregating both phenotypes. DNA from the proband of each family was sequenced for the ACVRL1, ENG, and MADH4 genes. Mutations were examined for familial cosegregation with phenotype and presence or absence in population controls. Findings No patient had mutations in the ENG or ACVRL1 genes; all had MADH4 mutations. Three cases of de-novo MADH4 mutations were found. In one, the mutation was passed on to a similarly affected child. Each mutation cosegregated with the syndromic phenotype in other affected family members. Mutations in MADH4 can cause a syndrome consisting of both juvenile polyposis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia phenotypes. Since patients with these disorders are generally ascertained through distinct medical specialties, genetic testing is recommended for patients presenting with either phenotype to identify those at risk of this syndrome. Patients with juvenile polyposis who have an MADH4 mutation should be screened for the vascular lesions associated with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, especially occult arteriovenous malformations in visceral organs that may otherwise present suddenly with serious medical consequences.
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        A new locus for hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT3) maps to chromosome 5.

        Patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT, or Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome) have variable presentation patterns and a high risk of preventable complications. Diagnostic tests for mutations in endoglin (HHT type 1) and ALK-1 (HHT type 2) are available. Some HHT patients are now known to have HHT-juvenile polyposis overlap syndrome due to Smad4 mutations. Families were ascertained following the presentation of probands for embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. Genome-wide linkage studies using over 700 polymorphic markers, and sequencing of candidate genes, were performed. In a previously described HHT family unlinked to endoglin or ALK-1, linkage to Smad4 was excluded, and no mutations were identified in the endoglin, ALK-1, or Smad4 genes. Two point LOD scores and recombination mapping identified a 5.4 cM HHT3 disease gene interval on chromosome 5 in which a single haplotype was inherited by all affected members of the pedigree. The remainder of the genome was excluded to a 2-5 cM resolution. We are currently studying a further family potentially linked to HHT3. We conclude that classical HHT with pulmonary involvement can result from mutations in an unidentified gene on chromosome 5. Identification of HHT3 should further illuminate HHT pathogenic mechanisms in which aberrant transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signalling is implicated.
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          A fourth locus for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia maps to chromosome 7.

          Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous multisystem vascular dysplasia. Mutations of the endoglin and ACVRL1 genes are known to cause HHT. However, existence of HHT families in which linkage to these genes has been excluded has suggested that other gene(s) can cause HHT in some families. Recently, a family was reported to be linked to chromosome 5q, the HHT3 locus. Here we report on linkage results on a family with classic features of HHT, albeit a less severe phenotype with regards to epistaxis and telangiectases, in which linkage to HHT1, HHT2, and HHT3 is ruled out. Whole genome linkage analysis and fine mapping results suggested a 7 Mb region on the short arm of chromosome 7 (7p14) between STR markers D7S2252 and D7S510. We obtained a maximum two point LOD score of 3.60 with the STR marker D7S817. This region was further confirmed by haplotype analysis. These findings suggest the presence of another gene causing HHT (HHT4). The features in this family that strongly suggest the presence of a hereditary, multisystem vascular dysplasia would be easily missed during the typical evaluation and management of a patient with an AVM. This family helps emphasize the need to obtain a very detailed, targeted medical and family history for even mild, infrequent but recurring nosebleed, subtle telangiectases. Further studies of the candidate region and the identification of the gene responsible for the vascular anomalies in this family will add to our understanding of vascular morphogenesis and related disorders. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

            Author and article information

            Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Centre Homburg/Saar, Homburg/Saar, Germany
            S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland )
            December 2016
            04 August 2016
            : 78
            : 5
            : 245-251
            ORL 2016;78:245-251
            © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

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