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      Nd:YAG Laser Treatment for Extranasal Telangiectasias: A Retrospective Analysis of 38 Patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia and Review of the Literature

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Extranasal telangiectasiasare common amongsthereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) patients. Telangiectasias can be found at sites like the external nose, lips, oral cavity and fingers. Although not life threatening, they can be annoying for patients and lead to bleeding in some cases, necessitating treatment. Methods: The data of 38 HHT patients treated for extranasal telangiectasias during a period of 10 years by means of Nd:YAG laser were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The telangiectasias treated affected predominantly the tongue, facial skin and lips. During a minimum follow-up of 3 years, only 7 patients required a revision of surgery. Conclusion: This study shows that Nd:YAG laser constitutes a fast, safe and efficient therapeutic modality for the treatment of extranasal telangiectasias.

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          Most cited references 30

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          A new locus for hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT3) maps to chromosome 5.

          Patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT, or Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome) have variable presentation patterns and a high risk of preventable complications. Diagnostic tests for mutations in endoglin (HHT type 1) and ALK-1 (HHT type 2) are available. Some HHT patients are now known to have HHT-juvenile polyposis overlap syndrome due to Smad4 mutations. Families were ascertained following the presentation of probands for embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. Genome-wide linkage studies using over 700 polymorphic markers, and sequencing of candidate genes, were performed. In a previously described HHT family unlinked to endoglin or ALK-1, linkage to Smad4 was excluded, and no mutations were identified in the endoglin, ALK-1, or Smad4 genes. Two point LOD scores and recombination mapping identified a 5.4 cM HHT3 disease gene interval on chromosome 5 in which a single haplotype was inherited by all affected members of the pedigree. The remainder of the genome was excluded to a 2-5 cM resolution. We are currently studying a further family potentially linked to HHT3. We conclude that classical HHT with pulmonary involvement can result from mutations in an unidentified gene on chromosome 5. Identification of HHT3 should further illuminate HHT pathogenic mechanisms in which aberrant transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signalling is implicated.
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            A fourth locus for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia maps to chromosome 7.

            Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous multisystem vascular dysplasia. Mutations of the endoglin and ACVRL1 genes are known to cause HHT. However, existence of HHT families in which linkage to these genes has been excluded has suggested that other gene(s) can cause HHT in some families. Recently, a family was reported to be linked to chromosome 5q, the HHT3 locus. Here we report on linkage results on a family with classic features of HHT, albeit a less severe phenotype with regards to epistaxis and telangiectases, in which linkage to HHT1, HHT2, and HHT3 is ruled out. Whole genome linkage analysis and fine mapping results suggested a 7 Mb region on the short arm of chromosome 7 (7p14) between STR markers D7S2252 and D7S510. We obtained a maximum two point LOD score of 3.60 with the STR marker D7S817. This region was further confirmed by haplotype analysis. These findings suggest the presence of another gene causing HHT (HHT4). The features in this family that strongly suggest the presence of a hereditary, multisystem vascular dysplasia would be easily missed during the typical evaluation and management of a patient with an AVM. This family helps emphasize the need to obtain a very detailed, targeted medical and family history for even mild, infrequent but recurring nosebleed, subtle telangiectases. Further studies of the candidate region and the identification of the gene responsible for the vascular anomalies in this family will add to our understanding of vascular morphogenesis and related disorders. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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              Health-related quality of life in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

              To assess and differentiate the health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). A prospective, open, cross-sectional questionnaire-based study (including the Short Form-36 Health Survey [SF-36]) performed by a tertiary care center. A total of 77 patients (36 females) were included. Except for one domain (bodily pain), the scores for all scales of the SF-36 were significantly reduced in comparison with normative data. The duration of epistaxis, the presence of hepatic involvement and gastrointestinal bleeding, and the number of visible telangiectases correlated with lower scores on several scales of the SF-36. Unexpectedly, the frequency of epistaxis did not correlate with any scale. The duration of epistaxis, liver involvement, gastrointestinal bleeding, and the number of visible telangiectases have a major influence on the HR-QoL in HHT whereby the frequency of epistaxis seems to play a minor role. The data presented have an impact on therapeutic decisions, medical expert opinions, and research funding.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ORL
                ORL
                10.1159/issn.0301-1569
                ORL
                ORL
                S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland karger@ 123456karger.com http://www.karger.com )
                0301-1569
                1423-0275
                December 2016
                04 August 2016
                : 78
                : 5
                : 245-251
                Affiliations
                Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Centre Homburg/Saar, Homburg/Saar, Germany
                Article
                ORL2016078005245 ORL 2016;78:245-251
                10.1159/000447949
                27486666
                © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 36, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

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