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      SNX10 is required for osteoclast formation and resorption activity.

      Journal of Cellular Biochemistry

      Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Bone Resorption, pathology, physiopathology, Cell Differentiation, physiology, Cell Line, Cells, Cultured, DNA Primers, genetics, Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental, Gene Silencing, Humans, Mice, Mice, 129 Strain, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Molecular Sequence Data, Osteoclasts, cytology, RANK Ligand, RNA, Small Interfering, Sequence Homology, Amino Acid, Sorting Nexins, antagonists & inhibitors

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          RANKL-stimulation of osteoclast precursors results in up-regulation of genes involved in the process of differentiation and activation. In this report we describe the expression and functional characterization of Sorting Nexin 10 (snx10). Snx10 belongs to the sorting nexin (SNX) family, a diverse group of proteins with a common feature: the PX domain, which is involved in membrane trafficking and cargo sorting in endosomes. Snx10 is strongly up-regulated during RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in vitro and expressed in osteoclasts in vivo. qPCR analysis confirmed a significant increase in the expression of snx10 in in vitro-derived osteoclasts, as well as in femur and calvaria. Immunohistochemical analysis of mouse embryo sections showed expression in long bone, calvariae, and developing teeth. The expression was limited to cells that also expressed TRAP, demonstrating osteoclastic localization. Confocal immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation analysis revealed Snx10 localization in the nucleus and in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To study a possible role for snx10 in osteoclast differentiation and function we silenced snx10 expression and found that snx10 silencing inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and osteoclast resorption on hydroxyapatite. Silencing also inhibited TRAP secretion. Taken together, these results confirm that snx10 is expressed in osteoclasts and is required for osteoclast differentiation and activity in vitro. Since inhibition of vesicular trafficking is essential for osteoclast formation and activity and SNX10 is involved in intracellular vesicular trafficking, these studies may identify a new candidate gene involved in the development of human bone diseases including osteoporosis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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