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      Decreases in Electrocardiographic R-Wave Amplitude and QT Interval Predict Myocardial Ischemic Infarction in Rhesus Monkeys with Left Anterior Descending Artery Ligation

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          Clinical studies have demonstrated the predictive values of changes in electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters for the preexisting myocardial ischemic infarction. However, a simple and early predictor for the subsequent development of myocardial infarction during the ischemic phase is of significant value for the identification of ischemic patients at high risk. The present study was undertaken by using non-human primate model of myocardial ischemic infarction to fulfill this gap. Twenty male Rhesus monkeys at age of 2–3 years old were subjected to left anterior descending artery ligation. This ligation was performed at varying position along the artery so that it produced varying sizes of myocardial infarction at the late stage. The ECG recording was undertaken before the surgical procedure, at 2 h after the ligation, and 8 weeks after the surgery for each animal. The correlation of the changes in the ECG waves in the early or the late stage with the myocardial infarction size was analyzed. The R wave depression and the QT shortening in the early ischemic stage were found to have an inverse correlation with the myocardial infarction size. At the late stage, the R wave depression, the QT prolongation, the QRS score, and the ST segment elevation were all closely correlated with the developed infarction size. The poor R wave progression was identified at both the early ischemic and the late infarction stages. Therefore, the present study using non-human primate model of myocardial ischemic infarction identified the decreases in the R wave and the QT interval as early predictors of myocardial infarction. Validation of these parameters in clinical studies would greatly help identifying patients with myocardial ischemia at high risk for the subsequent development of myocardial infarction.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Sudden death associated with short-QT syndrome linked to mutations in HERG.

          Sudden cardiac death takes the lives of more than 300 000 Americans annually. Malignant ventricular arrhythmias occurring in individuals with structurally normal hearts account for a subgroup of these sudden deaths. The present study describes the genetic basis for a new clinical entity characterized by sudden death and short-QT intervals in the ECG. Three families with hereditary short-QT syndrome and a high incidence of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death were studied. In 2 of them, we identified 2 different missense mutations resulting in the same amino acid change (N588K) in the S5-P loop region of the cardiac IKr channel HERG (KCNH2). The mutations dramatically increase IKr, leading to heterogeneous abbreviation of action potential duration and refractoriness, and reduce the affinity of the channels to IKr blockers. We demonstrate a novel genetic and biophysical mechanism responsible for sudden death in infants, children, and young adults caused by mutations in KCNH2. The occurrence of sudden cardiac death in the first 12 months of life in 2 patients suggests the possibility of a link between KCNH2 gain of function mutations and sudden infant death syndrome. KCNH2 is the binding target for a wide spectrum of cardiac and noncardiac pharmacological compounds. Our findings may provide better understanding of drug interaction with KCNH2 and have implications for diagnosis and therapy of this and other arrhythmogenic diseases.
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            The second Euro Heart Survey on acute coronary syndromes: Characteristics, treatment, and outcome of patients with ACS in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin in 2004.

            Our study aimed to examine the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in Europe and the Mediterranean basin, and to compare adherence to guidelines with that reported in the first Euro Heart Survey on ACS (EHS-ACS-I), 4 years earlier. In a prospective survey conducted in 2004 (EHS-ACS-II), data describing the characteristics, treatment, and outcome of 6385 patients diagnosed with ACS in 190 medical centres in 32 countries were collected. ACS with ST-elevation was the initial diagnosis in 47% of patients, no ST-elevation in 48%, and undetermined electrocardiographic pattern in 5% of patients. Comparison of data collected in 2000 and 2004 showed similar baseline characteristics, but greater use of recommended medications and coronary interventions in EHS-ACS-II. Among patients with ST-elevation, the use of primary reperfusion increased slightly (from 56 to 64%), with a significant shift from fibrinolytic therapy to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). The use of PPCI rose from 37 to 59% among those undergoing primary reperfusion therapy. Analysis of data in 34 centres that participated in both surveys showed even greater improvement with respect to the use of recommended medical therapy, interventions, and outcome. Data from EHS-ACS-II suggest an increase in adherence to guidelines for treatment of ACS in comparison with EHS-ACS-I.
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              A novel form of short QT syndrome (SQT3) is caused by a mutation in the KCNJ2 gene.

              Short QT syndrome (SQTS) leads to an abbreviated QTc interval and predisposes patients to life-threatening arrhythmias. To date, two forms of the disease have been identified: SQT1, caused by a gain of function substitution in the HERG (I(Kr)) channel, and SQT2, caused by a gain of function substitution in the KvLQT1 (I(Ks)) channel. Here we identify a new variant, "SQT3", which has a unique ECG phenotype characterized by asymmetrical T waves, and a defect in the gene coding for the inwardly rectifying Kir2.1 (I(K1)) channel. The affected members of a single family had a G514A substitution in the KCNJ2 gene that resulted in a change from aspartic acid to asparagine at position 172 (D172N). Whole-cell patch-clamp studies of the heterologously expressed human D172N channel demonstrated a larger outward I(K1) than the wild-type (P<0.05) at potentials between -75 mV and -45 mV, with the peak current being shifted in the former with respect to the latter (WT, -75 mV; D172N, -65 mV). Coexpression of WT and mutant channels to mimic the heterozygous condition of the proband yielded an outward current that was intermediate between WT and D172N. In computer simulations using a human ventricular myocyte model the increased outward I(K1) greatly accelerated the final phase of repolarization, and shortened the action potential duration. Hence, unlike the known mutations in the two other SQTS forms (N588K in HERG and V307L in KvLQT1), simulations using the D172N and WT/D172N mutations fully accounted for the ECG phenotype of tall and asymmetrically shaped T waves. Although we were unable to test for inducibility of arrhythmia susceptibility due to lack of patients' consent, our computer simulations predict a steeper steady-state restitution curve for the D172N and WT/D172N mutation, compared with WT or to HERG or KvLQT1 mutations, which may predispose SQT3 patients to a greater risk of reentrant arrhythmias.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                13 August 2013
                : 8
                : 8
                [1 ]Regenerative Medicine Research Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, United States of America
                University of Western Ontario, Canada
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: PH YJK. Performed the experiments: XS J. Cai XF Y. Xie J. Chen Y. Xiao. Analyzed the data: XS J. Cai XF. Wrote the paper: YJK.


                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 7
                This study was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, Grant No. 2013CB530700). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Research Article
                Model Organisms
                Animal Models
                Animal Physiology
                Myocardial Infarction
                Clinical Research Design
                Animal Models of Disease
                Non-Clinical Medicine
                Health Care Policy
                Health Risk Analysis
                Diagnostic Radiology



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