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      Adenovirus serotype 7 associated with a severe lower respiratory tract disease outbreak in infants in Shaanxi Province, China

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      Virology Journal
      BioMed Central

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          Pneumonia caused by adenovirus infection is usually severe especially with adenovirus serotype 7 commonly associated with lower respiratory tract disease outbreaks. We reported an outbreak of 70 cases of severe pneumonia with one death of infants in Shaanxi Province, China. Sampling showed adenovirus 7 (Ad7) as the primary pathogen with some co-infections.


          Two strains of adenovirus and two strains of enterovirus were isolated, the 21 pharynx swabs showed 14 positive amplifications for adenovirus; three co-infections with respiratory syncytial virus, two positive for rhinovirus, one positive for parainfluenza 3, and four negative. Adenovirus typing showed nine of the nine adenovirus positive samples were HAdV-7, three were HAdV-3 and two were too weak to perform sequencing. The entire hexon gene of adenovirus was sequenced and analyzed for the two adenovirus serotype 7 isolates, showing the nucleic acid homology was 99.8% between the two strains and 99.5% compared to the reference strain HAdV-7 (GenBank accession number AY769946). For the 21 acute phase serum samples from the 21 patients, six samples had positives results for ELISA detection of HAdV IgA, and the neutralization titers of the convalescent-phase samples were four times higher than those of the acute-phase samples in nine pairs.


          We concluded adenovirus was the viral pathogen, primarily HAdV-7, with some co-infections responsible for the outbreak. This is the first report of an infant pneumonia outbreak caused by adenovirus serotype 7 in Shaanxi Province, China.

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          Most cited references21

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          Outbreak of acute respiratory disease in China caused by B2 species of adenovirus type 11.

          An outbreak of acute respiratory tract infection occurred in Shanxi Province, China, from March to April 2006. Of the 254 patients affected by this outbreak, 247 patients were students of a senior high school; 1 of these patients died during the outbreak. Serological tests and blood culture revealed no evidence of bacterial infection. The results of direct reverse transcription-PCR or PCR performed with clinical specimens collected from the patients, including the sole patient who died, were positive for human adenoviruses (HAdVs) but negative for influenza virus, measles virus, rubella virus, mumps virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and human enteroviruses. These findings were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for HAdV immunoglobulin A, the conventional neutralization test, and viral isolation and identification. Sequencing of the entire hexon gene revealed that HdAV type 11a (HAdV-11a) belonging to the B2 species of HAdV was the etiological agent responsible for the outbreak. However, both the analysis of the phylogenetic relationship and the similarity plot indicated that the sequence of the 3' end of the hexon gene outside the hypervariable regions the HAdV-11a strain isolated in this outbreak may be a recombinant with the sequence of the HAdV-14 strain of species B2. Although isolates of HAdV species B2 seldom cause respiratory infections, they may pose a new global challenge with regard to acute respiratory diseases; this possibility cannot be overlooked and should be carefully considered. Hence, the need to establish and improve both epidemiological and virological surveillance of HAdV infections in China should be emphasized.
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            Worldwide epidemiology of human adenovirus infections.

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              Molecular Epidemiology of Adenovirus Type 7 in the United States, 1966–20001

              Genetic variation among 166 isolates of human adenovirus 7 (Ad7) obtained from 1966 to 2000 from the United States and Eastern Ontario, Canada, was determined by genome restriction analysis. Most (65%) isolates were identified as Ad7b. Two genome types previously undocumented in North America were also identified: Ad7d2 (28%), which first appeared in 1993 and was later identified throughout the Midwest and Northeast of the United States and in Canada; and Ad7h (2%), which was identified only in the U.S. Southwest in 1998 and 2000. Since 1996, Ad7d2 has been responsible for several civilian outbreaks of Ad7 disease and was the primary cause of a large outbreak of respiratory illness at a military recruit training center. The appearance of Ad7d2 and Ad7h in North America represents recent introduction of these viruses from previously geographically restricted areas and may herald a shift in predominant genome type circulating in the United States.

                Author and article information

                Virol J
                Virology Journal
                BioMed Central
                18 January 2011
                : 8
                : 23
                [1 ]National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. State Key Laboratory for Molecular Virology & Genetic Engineering. 27, Nanwei Road, Room 507, Xuanwu District, Beijing, 100050, P. R. China
                [2 ]Shaanxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xi'an, P. R. China
                Copyright ©2011 Tang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 2 November 2010
                : 18 January 2011

                Microbiology & Virology
                Microbiology & Virology


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