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      Post-sports career healthy ageing: The Janus-faced, high-performance sport

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          By now, there is no doubt that regular physical exercise has an overall beneficial effect on each organ of the body. However, the effects of highly competitive sports (HCS) are more complex, as they exert greater demands on the cardiovascular and metabolic systems, among others. Strength, athletic, and aesthetic sport types each has a different exercise intensity and nutritional loading, as well as a different prevalence of cardiometabolic diseases at a later age. HCS athletes experience hypertension and mental stress during competitions and high nutritional loads between them. The post-career effects of this behaviour on the heart, arteries, cellular metabolism, and risk of obesity, are not well known and are not often the focus of research. In this review, we aimed to summarize the post-career effects of HCS. Based on data in the literature, we propose that athletes involved in highly competitive strength sports progressively develop metabolic syndrome and sustained elevated blood pressure.

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          Author and article information

          Developments in Health Sciences
          Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
          31 October 2020
          31 July 2020
          : 3
          : 1
          : 9-15
          [1 ] Dr Rose Private Hospital , Budapest, Hungary
          [2 ] deptDepartmental Group of Geriatrics, 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University , Budapest, Hungary
          [3 ] Institute for Translational Medicine, Medical School, University of Pécs , Pécs, Hungary
          [4 ] deptDepartment of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University , Budapest, Hungary
          [5 ] Sport-physiology Research Center, Institute for Sports and Health Sciences, University of Physical Education , Budapest, Hungary
          [6 ] deptDepartment of Morphology and Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University , Budapest, Hungary
          [7 ] Faculty of Education and Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University , Budapest, Hungary
          [8 ] deptDepartment of Physiology, New York Medical College , Valhalla, NY, USA
          Author notes
          []Corresponding author. deptDepartment of Morphology and Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University , Vas utca 17, Budapest, H-1088, Hungary E-mail: akos.koller@ 123456gmail.com
          © 2020 The Author(s)

          Open Access. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated. (SID_1)

          Page count
          Figures: 1, Equations: 0, References: 63, Pages: 07
          Call for Papers–Review Article
          Custom metadata

          Medicine,Immunology,Health & Social care,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
          sport,hypertension,cardiovascular system,physical activity,metabolism


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