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      Outcome of kidney function after ischaemic and zero-ischaemic laparoscopic and open nephron-sparing surgery for renal cell cancer

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          Nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) remains gold standard for the treatment of localised renal cell cancer (RCC), even in case of a normal contralateral kidney. Compared to radical nephrectomy, kidney failure and cardiovascular events are less frequent with NSS. However, the effects of different surgical approaches and of zero ischaemia on the postoperative reduction in renal function remain controversial.

          We aimed to investigate the relative short- and long-term changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after ischaemic or zero-ischaemic open (ONSS) and laparoscopic NSS (LNSS) for RCC, and to analyse prognostic factors for postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage ≥3.


          Data of 444 patients (211 LNSS, 233 ONSS), including 57 zero-ischaemic cases, were retrospectively analysed. Multiple regression models were used to predict relative changes in renal function. Natural cubic splines were used to demonstrate the association between ischaemia time (IT) and relative changes in renal function.


          IT was identified as significant risk factor for short-term relative changes in eGFR (ß = − 0.27) and development of AKI (OR, 1.02), but no effect was found on long-term relative changes in eGFR. Natural cubic splines revealed that IT had a greater effect on patients with baseline eGFR categories ≥G3 concerning short-term decrease in renal function and development of AKI. Unlike LNSS, ONSS was significantly associated with short-term decrease in renal function (ß = − 13.48) and development of AKI (OR, 3.87). Tumour diameter was associated with long-term decrease in renal function (ß = − 1.76), whereas baseline eGFR was a prognostic factor for both short- (ß = − 0.20) and long-term (ß = − 0.29) relative changes in eGFR and the development of CKD stage ≥3 (OR, 0.89).


          IT is a significant risk factor for AKI. The short-term effect of IT is not always linear, and the impact also depends on baseline eGFR. Unlike LNSS, ONSS is associated with the development of AKI. Our findings are helpful for surgical planning, and suggest either the application of a clampless NSS technique or at least the shortest possible IT to reduce the risk of short-time impairment of the renal function, which might prevent AKI, particularly regarding patients with baseline eGFR category ≥G3.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Guideline for management of the clinical T1 renal mass.

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            Chronic kidney disease after nephrectomy in patients with renal cortical tumours: a retrospective cohort study.

            Chronic kidney disease is a graded and independent risk factor for substantial comorbidity and death. We aimed to examine new onset of chronic kidney disease in patients with small, renal cortical tumours undergoing radical or partial nephrectomy. We did a retrospective cohort study of 662 patients with a normal concentration of serum creatinine and two healthy kidneys undergoing elective partial or radical nephrectomy for a solitary, renal cortical tumour (
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              Comparison of 1,800 laparoscopic and open partial nephrectomies for single renal tumors.

              Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is an increasingly performed, minimally invasive alternative to open partial nephrectomy. We compared early postoperative outcomes in 1,800 patients undergoing open partial nephrectomy by experienced surgeons with the initial experience with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in patients with a single renal tumor 7 cm or less. Data on 1,800 consecutive open or laparoscopic partial nephrectomies were collected prospectively or retrospectively in tumor registries at 3 large referral centers. Demographic, intraoperative, postoperative and followup data were compared between the 2 groups. Compared to the laparoscopic partial nephrectomy group of 771 patients the 1,028 undergoing open partial nephrectomy were a higher risk group with a greater percent presenting symptomatically with decreased performance status, impaired renal function and tumor in a solitary functioning kidney (p<0.0001). More tumors in the open partial nephrectomy group were more than 4 cm and centrally located and more proved to be malignant (p<0.0001 and 0.0003, respectively). Based on multivariate analysis laparoscopic partial nephrectomy was associated with shorter operative time (p<0.0001), decreased operative blood loss (p<0.0001) and shorter hospital stay (p<0.0001). The chance of intraoperative complications was comparable in the 2 groups. However, laparoscopic partial nephrectomy was associated with longer ischemia time (p<0.0001), more postoperative complications, particularly urological (p<0.0001), and an increased number of subsequent procedures (p<0.0001). Renal functional outcomes were similar 3 months after laparoscopic and open partial nephrectomy with 97.9% and 99.6% of renal units retaining function, respectively. Three-year cancer specific survival for patients with a single cT1N0M0 renal cell carcinoma was 99.3% and 99.2% after laparoscopic and open partial nephrectomy, respectively. Early experience with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is promising. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy offered the advantages of less operative time, decreased operative blood loss and a shorter hospital stay. When applied to patients with a single renal tumor 7 cm or less, laparoscopic partial nephrectomy was associated with additional postoperative morbidity compared to open partial nephrectomy. However, equivalent functional and early oncological outcomes were achieved.

                Author and article information

                BMC Nephrol
                BMC Nephrol
                BMC Nephrology
                BioMed Central (London )
                4 February 2019
                4 February 2019
                : 20
                [1 ]GRID grid.410567.1, University Hospital Basel, Urological University Clinic Basel-Liestal, ; Spitalstrasse 21, 4051 Basel, Switzerland
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2218 4662, GRID grid.6363.0, Department of Urology, , Charité - University Hospital, ; Berlin, Germany
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0626, GRID grid.4714.6, Karolinska Institutet, Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine (IMM), ; Stockholm, Sweden
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0626, GRID grid.4714.6, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery (MMK), , Karolinska Institutet, ; Stockholm, Sweden
                [5 ]GRID grid.459734.8, Marien Hospital Herne – University Clinic of the Ruhr-University Bochum, Medical Clinic I, ; Herne, Germany
                [6 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9241 5705, GRID grid.24381.3c, Department of Urology, , Karolinska - University Hospital, ; Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
                [7 ]Department of Urology, Franziskus Hospital Berlin, Berlin, Germany
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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