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      Neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s disease and its potential as therapeutic target

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          Abstract

          Parkinson’s disease (PD), the second most common age-associated neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons and the presence of α-synuclein-containing aggregates in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Chronic neuroinflammation is one of the hallmarks of PD pathophysiology. Post-mortem analyses of human PD patients and experimental animal studies indicate that activation of glial cells and increases in pro-inflammatory factor levels are common features of the PD brain. Chronic release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by activated astrocytes and microglia leads to the exacerbation of DA neuron degeneration in the SNpc. Besides, peripheral immune system is also implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. Infiltration and accumulation of immune cells from the periphery are detected in and around the affected brain regions of PD patients. Moreover, inflammatory processes have been suggested as promising interventional targets for PD and even other neurodegenerative diseases. A better understanding of the role of inflammation in PD will provide new insights into the pathological processes and help to establish effective therapeutic strategies. In this review, we will summarize recent progresses in the neuroimmune aspects of PD and highlight the potential therapeutic interventions targeting neuroinflammation.

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          Most cited references 86

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          Control of microglial neurotoxicity by the fractalkine receptor.

          Microglia, the resident inflammatory cells of the CNS, are the only CNS cells that express the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1). Using three different in vivo models, we show that CX3CR1 deficiency dysregulates microglial responses, resulting in neurotoxicity. Following peripheral lipopolysaccharide injections, Cx3cr1-/- mice showed cell-autonomous microglial neurotoxicity. In a toxic model of Parkinson disease and a transgenic model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Cx3cr1-/- mice showed more extensive neuronal cell loss than Cx3cr1+ littermate controls. Augmenting CX3CR1 signaling may protect against microglial neurotoxicity, whereas CNS penetration by pharmaceutical CX3CR1 antagonists could increase neuronal vulnerability.
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            Microglia and inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration: multiple triggers with a common mechanism.

            Inflammation, a common denominator among the diverse list of neurodegenerative diseases, has recently been implicated as a critical mechanism responsible for the progressive nature of neurodegeneration. Microglia are the resident innate immune cells in the central nervous system and produce a barrage of factors (IL-1, TNFalpha, NO, PGE2, superoxide) that are toxic to neurons. Evidence supports that the unregulated activation of microglia in response to environmental toxins, endogenous proteins, and neuronal death results in the production of toxic factors that propagate neuronal injury. In the following review, we discuss the common thread of microglial activation across numerous neurodegenerative diseases, define current perceptions of how microglia are damaging neurons, and explain how the microglial response to neuronal damage results in a self-propelling cycle of neuron death.
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              Blockade of microglial activation is neuroprotective in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson disease.

              1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) damages the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway as seen in Parkinson's disease (PD), a common neurodegenerative disorder with no effective protective treatment. Consistent with a role of glial cells in PD neurodegeneration, here we show that minocycline, an approved tetracycline derivative that inhibits microglial activation independently of its antimicrobial properties, mitigates both the demise of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and the formation of nitrotyrosine produced by MPTP. In addition, we show that minocycline not only prevents MPTP-induced activation of microglia but also the formation of mature interleukin-1beta and the activation of NADPH-oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), three key microglial-derived cytotoxic mediators. Previously, we demonstrated that ablation of iNOS attenuates MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. Now, we demonstrate that iNOS is not the only microglial-related culprit implicated in MPTP-induced toxicity because mutant iNOS-deficient mice treated with minocycline are more resistant to this neurotoxin than iNOS-deficient mice not treated with minocycline. This study demonstrates that microglial-related inflammatory events play a significant role in the MPTP neurotoxic process and suggests that minocycline may be a valuable neuroprotective agent for the treatment of PD.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +86-21-5492 1073 , jwzhou@ion.ac.cn
                Journal
                Transl Neurodegener
                Transl Neurodegener
                Translational Neurodegeneration
                BioMed Central (London )
                2047-9158
                12 October 2015
                12 October 2015
                2015
                : 4
                Affiliations
                Institute of Neuroscience, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yueyang Road, Shanghai, 200031 China
                Article
                42
                10.1186/s40035-015-0042-0
                4603346
                e1c9e042-4efe-4995-91d0-74e8b51e7d0f
                © Wang et al. 2015

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                Review
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                © The Author(s) 2015

                Neurosciences

                parkinson’s disease, neurodegeneration, glial cells, neuroinflammation

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