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      Notable homologous variation in chromosomal races of the common shrew

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          Abstract

          This paper is a review of the rare phenomenon of chromosome intraspecies variation manifested in monobrachial homology series in the comprehensively investigated karyotype of the common shrew Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 (Eulipotyphla, Mammalia ). The detailed dataset on the account of this mammalian species was drawn from the recently published monograph by Searle et al. (2019) “Shrews, Chromosomes and Speciation”. The parallels to the law of homologous series in variation by Nikolai Vavilov are discussed.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Nomenclature for the chromosomes of the common shrew (Sorex araneus)

          A G-band composite karyotype has been prepared for the common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758). This includes multiple cut-outs of each chromosome arm (in different stages of contraction) derived from chromosome spreads prepared by a variety of methods by the different authors. The important features of each chromosome arm are described. The nomenclature for the chromosome arms follows that of Halkka et al. (1974) as clarified by Fredga, Nawrin (1977) and subsequent authors, i.e. italicised letters of the alphabet are used with a as the largest chromosome arm. Different authors have used a variety of methods to describe the karyotype of (a) individuals and (b) the pattern of variation within populations. Also, definitions of chromosomal ‘race’ differ. We suggest a standardised scheme for the description of individuals, populations and chromosomal races
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            Karyotype evolution of eulipotyphla (insectivora): the genome homology of seven sorex species revealed by comparative chromosome painting and banding data.

            The genus Sorex is one of the most successful genera of Eulipotyphla. Species of this genus are characterized by a striking chromosome variability including XY1Y2 sex chromosome systems and exceptional chromosomal polymorphisms within and between populations. To study chromosomal evolution of the genus in detail, we performed cross-species chromosome painting of 7 Sorex species with S. granarius and S. araneus whole-chromosome probes and found that the tundra shrew S. tundrensis has the most rearranged karyotype among these. We reconstructed robust phylogeny of the genus Sorex based on revealed conserved chromosomal segments and syntenic associations. About 16 rearrangements led to formation of 2 major Palearctic groups after their divergence from the common ancestor: the S. araneus group (10 fusions and 1 fission) and the S. minutus group (5 fusions). Further chromosomal evolution of the 12 species inside the groups, including 5 previously investigated species, was accompanied by multiple reshuffling events: 39 fusions, 20 centromere shifts and 10 fissions. The rate of chromosomal exchanges upon formation of the genus was close to the average rate for eutherians, but increased during recent (about 6-3 million years ago) speciation within Sorex. We propose that a plausible ancestral Sorex karyotype consists of 56 elements. It underwent 20 chromosome rearrangements from the boreoeutherian ancestor, with 14 chromosomes retaining the conserved state. The set of genus-specific chromosome signatures was drawn from the human (HSA)-shrew comparative map (HSA3/12/22, 8/19/3/21, 2/13, 3/18, 11/17, 12/15 and 1/12/22). The syntenic association HSA4/20, that was previously proposed as a common trait of all Eulipotyphla species, is shown here to be an apomorphic trait of S. araneus. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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              Demonstration of a WART in a hybrid zone of the common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758).

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Comp Cytogenet
                Comp Cytogenet
                8
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:A71ED5FC-60ED-5DA3-AC8E-F6D2BB5B3573
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C8FA3ADA-5585-4F26-9215-A520EE683979
                Comparative Cytogenetics
                Pensoft Publishers
                1993-0771
                1993-078X
                2020
                14 July 2020
                : 14
                : 3
                : 313-318
                Affiliations
                [1 ] A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071, Russia A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow Russia
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Nina Bulatova ( ninbul@ 123456mail.ru )

                Academic editor: V.G. Kuznetsova

                Article
                54526
                10.3897/CompCytogen.v14i3.54526
                7381428
                Nina Bulatova

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Short Communication
                Animalia
                Genetics
                Cenozoic
                Europe

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