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      Notable homologous variation in chromosomal races of the common shrew


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          This paper is a review of the rare phenomenon of chromosome intraspecies variation manifested in monobrachial homology series in the comprehensively investigated karyotype of the common shrew Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 (Eulipotyphla, Mammalia ). The detailed dataset on the account of this mammalian species was drawn from the recently published monograph by Searle et al. (2019) “Shrews, Chromosomes and Speciation”. The parallels to the law of homologous series in variation by Nikolai Vavilov are discussed.

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          Rapid chromosomal evolution in enigmatic mammal with XX in both sexes, the Alay mole vole Ellobius alaicus Vorontsov et al., 1969 ( Mammalia , Rodentia )

          Abstract Evolutionary history and taxonomic position for cryptic species may be clarified by using molecular and cytogenetic methods. The subterranean rodent, the Alay mole vole Ellobius alaicus Vorontsov et al., 1969 is one of three sibling species constituting the subgenus Ellobius Fischer, 1814, all of which lost the Y chromosome and obtained isomorphic XX sex chromosomes in both males and females. E. alaicus is evaluated by IUCN as a data deficient species because their distribution, biology, and genetics are almost unknown. We revealed specific karyotypic variability (2n = 52–48) in E. alaicus due to different Robertsonian translocations (Rbs). Two variants of hybrids (2n = 53, different Rbs) with E. tancrei Blasius, 1884 were found at the Northern slopes of the Alay Ridge and in the Naryn district, Kyrgyzstan. We described the sudden change in chromosome numbers from 2n = 50 to 48 and specific karyotype structure for mole voles, which inhabit the entrance to the Alay Valley (Tajikistan), and revealed their affiliation as E. alaicus by cytochrome b and fragments of nuclear XIST and Rspo1 genes sequencing. To date, it is possible to expand the range of E. alaicus from the Alay Valley (South Kyrgyzstan) up to the Ferghana Ridge and the Naryn Basin, Tien Shan at the north-east and to the Pamir-Alay Mountains (Tajikistan) at the west. The closeness of E. tancrei and E. alaicus is supported, whereas specific chromosome and molecular changes, as well as geographic distribution, verified the species status for E. alaicus . The case of Ellobius species accented an unevenness in rates of chromosome and nucleotide changes along with morphological similarity, which is emblematic for cryptic species.
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            Nomenclature for the chromosomes of the common shrew (Sorex araneus)

            A G-band composite karyotype has been prepared for the common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758). This includes multiple cut-outs of each chromosome arm (in different stages of contraction) derived from chromosome spreads prepared by a variety of methods by the different authors. The important features of each chromosome arm are described. The nomenclature for the chromosome arms follows that of Halkka et al. (1974) as clarified by Fredga, Nawrin (1977) and subsequent authors, i.e. italicised letters of the alphabet are used with a as the largest chromosome arm. Different authors have used a variety of methods to describe the karyotype of (a) individuals and (b) the pattern of variation within populations. Also, definitions of chromosomal ‘race’ differ. We suggest a standardised scheme for the description of individuals, populations and chromosomal races
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              Karyotype evolution of eulipotyphla (insectivora): the genome homology of seven sorex species revealed by comparative chromosome painting and banding data.

              The genus Sorex is one of the most successful genera of Eulipotyphla. Species of this genus are characterized by a striking chromosome variability including XY1Y2 sex chromosome systems and exceptional chromosomal polymorphisms within and between populations. To study chromosomal evolution of the genus in detail, we performed cross-species chromosome painting of 7 Sorex species with S. granarius and S. araneus whole-chromosome probes and found that the tundra shrew S. tundrensis has the most rearranged karyotype among these. We reconstructed robust phylogeny of the genus Sorex based on revealed conserved chromosomal segments and syntenic associations. About 16 rearrangements led to formation of 2 major Palearctic groups after their divergence from the common ancestor: the S. araneus group (10 fusions and 1 fission) and the S. minutus group (5 fusions). Further chromosomal evolution of the 12 species inside the groups, including 5 previously investigated species, was accompanied by multiple reshuffling events: 39 fusions, 20 centromere shifts and 10 fissions. The rate of chromosomal exchanges upon formation of the genus was close to the average rate for eutherians, but increased during recent (about 6-3 million years ago) speciation within Sorex. We propose that a plausible ancestral Sorex karyotype consists of 56 elements. It underwent 20 chromosome rearrangements from the boreoeutherian ancestor, with 14 chromosomes retaining the conserved state. The set of genus-specific chromosome signatures was drawn from the human (HSA)-shrew comparative map (HSA3/12/22, 8/19/3/21, 2/13, 3/18, 11/17, 12/15 and 1/12/22). The syntenic association HSA4/20, that was previously proposed as a common trait of all Eulipotyphla species, is shown here to be an apomorphic trait of S. araneus. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

                Author and article information

                Comp Cytogenet
                Comp Cytogenet
                Comparative Cytogenetics
                Pensoft Publishers
                14 July 2020
                : 14
                : 3
                : 313-318
                [1 ] A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071, Russia A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow Russia
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Nina Bulatova ( ninbul@ 123456mail.ru )

                Academic editor: V.G. Kuznetsova

                Nina Bulatova

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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