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      Global and regional estimates of orphans attributed to maternal cancer mortality in 2020

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          Abstract

          Despite women being disproportionally affected by cancer deaths at young ages, there are no global estimates of the resulting maternal orphans, who experience health and education disadvantages throughout their lives. We estimated the number of children who became maternal orphans in 2020 due to their mother dying from cancer in that year, for 185 countries worldwide and by cause of cancer-related death. Female cancer deaths—by country, cancer type and age (derived from GLOBOCAN estimates)—were multiplied by each woman’s estimated number of children under the age of 18 years at the time of her death (fertility data were derived from United Nations World Population Prospects for birth cohort), accounting for child mortality and parity-cancer risk associations. Globally, there were 1,047,000 such orphans. Over half of these were orphans due to maternal deaths from breast (258,000, 25%), cervix (210,000, 20%) and upper-gastrointestinal cancers (136,000, 13%), and most occurred in Asia (48%: India 15%, China 10%, rest of Asia 23%) and Africa (35%). Globally, there were 40 new maternal orphans due to cancer per 100,000 children, with a declining trend with a higher Human Development Index (range: 121 in Malawi to 15 in Malta). An estimated 7 million children were prevalent maternal orphans due to cancer in mid-2020. Accelerating the implementation of the World Health Organization’s cervical and breast cancer initiatives has the potential to avert not only millions of preventable female cancer deaths but also the associated, often-overlooked, intergenerational consequences of these deaths.

          Abstract

          According to 2020 estimates from 185 countries, Asia and Africa have the most maternal orphans due to cancer, with breast and cervical cancers responsible for almost half of maternal cancers.

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          Global surveillance of trends in cancer survival 2000–14 (CONCORD-3): analysis of individual records for 37 513 025 patients diagnosed with one of 18 cancers from 322 population-based registries in 71 countries

          In 2015, the second cycle of the CONCORD programme established global surveillance of cancer survival as a metric of the effectiveness of health systems and to inform global policy on cancer control. CONCORD-3 updates the worldwide surveillance of cancer survival to 2014.
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            Cancer statistics for the year 2020: An overview

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              Progress in cancer survival, mortality, and incidence in seven high-income countries 1995–2014 (ICBP SURVMARK-2): a population-based study

              Population-based cancer survival estimates provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of cancer services and can reflect the prospects of cure. As part of the second phase of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP), the Cancer Survival in High-Income Countries (SURVMARK-2) project aims to provide a comprehensive overview of cancer survival across seven high-income countries and a comparative assessment of corresponding incidence and mortality trends.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                guidaf@iarc.who.int
                mccormackv@iarc.who.int
                Journal
                Nat Med
                Nat Med
                Nature Medicine
                Nature Publishing Group US (New York )
                1078-8956
                1546-170X
                20 November 2022
                20 November 2022
                : 1-10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.17703.32, ISNI 0000000405980095, International Agency for Research on Cancer, ; Lyon, France
                [2 ]GRID grid.36425.36, ISNI 0000 0001 2216 9681, Program in Public Health and Department of Family, Population and Preventive Medicine, , Stony Brook University (State University of New York), ; Stony Brook, NY USA
                [3 ]Kilele Health Association, Nairobi, Kenya
                [4 ]GRID grid.48336.3a, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8075, Centre for Global Health, , US National Cancer Institute, ; Rockville, MD USA
                [5 ]GRID grid.15276.37, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8091, Department of Radiation Oncology, , University of Florida, ; Gainesville, FL USA
                [6 ]GRID grid.11194.3c, ISNI 0000 0004 0620 0548, Makerere University, ; Kampala, Uganda
                [7 ]GRID grid.410711.2, ISNI 0000 0001 1034 1720, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, , University of North Carolina, ; Chapel Hill, NC USA
                [8 ]GRID grid.1013.3, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 834X, The Daffodil Centre, , The University of Sydney, a joint venture with Cancer Council NSW, ; Sydney, New South Wales Australia
                [9 ]GRID grid.3575.4, ISNI 0000000121633745, Global Breast Cancer Initiative, Department of Non-communicable Diseases, , World Health Organization (WHO), ; Geneva, Switzerland
                [10 ]GRID grid.8991.9, ISNI 0000 0004 0425 469X, Department of Non-Communicable Diseases Epidemiology, , London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, ; London, UK
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9652-2430
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9687-2134
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7397-3442
                Article
                2109
                10.1038/s41591-022-02109-2
                9676732
                36404355
                e1ec8bf6-420f-4177-9002-f2ee823358e8
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 3 October 2022
                : 25 October 2022
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100000054, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services | NIH | National Cancer Institute (NCI);
                Award ID: R01CA244559
                Award ID: R01CA244559
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Article

                Medicine
                cancer,social sciences
                Medicine
                cancer, social sciences

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