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      Neuroinflammatory Mechanisms in Ischemic Stroke: Focus on Cardioembolic Stroke, Background, and Therapeutic Approaches

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          Abstract

          One of the most important causes of neurological morbidity and mortality in the world is ischemic stroke. It can be a result of multiple events such as embolism with a cardiac origin, occlusion of small vessels in the brain, and atherosclerosis affecting the cerebral circulation. Increasing evidence shows the intricate function played by the immune system in the pathophysiological variations that take place after cerebral ischemic injury. Following the ischemic cerebral harm, we can observe consequent neuroinflammation that causes additional damage provoking the death of the cells; on the other hand, it also plays a beneficial role in stimulating remedial action. Immune mediators are the origin of signals with a proinflammatory position that can boost the cells in the brain and promote the penetration of numerous inflammatory cytotypes (various subtypes of T cells, monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, and different inflammatory cells) within the area affected by ischemia; this process is responsible for further ischemic damage of the brain. This inflammatory process seems to involve both the cerebral tissue and the whole organism in cardioembolic stroke, the stroke subtype that is associated with more severe brain damage and a consequent worse outcome (more disability, higher mortality). In this review, the authors want to present an overview of the present learning of the mechanisms of inflammation that takes place in the cerebral tissue and the role of the immune system involved in ischemic stroke, focusing on cardioembolic stroke and its potential treatment strategies.

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          2016 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: The Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)Developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC.

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            Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: 2019 Update to the 2018 Guidelines for the Early Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association

            Background and Purpose- The purpose of these guidelines is to provide an up-to-date comprehensive set of recommendations in a single document for clinicians caring for adult patients with acute arterial ischemic stroke. The intended audiences are prehospital care providers, physicians, allied health professionals, and hospital administrators. These guidelines supersede the 2013 Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS) Guidelines and are an update of the 2018 AIS Guidelines. Methods- Members of the writing group were appointed by the American Heart Association (AHA) Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee, representing various areas of medical expertise. Members were not allowed to participate in discussions or to vote on topics relevant to their relations with industry. An update of the 2013 AIS Guidelines was originally published in January 2018. This guideline was approved by the AHA Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee and the AHA Executive Committee. In April 2018, a revision to these guidelines, deleting some recommendations, was published online by the AHA. The writing group was asked review the original document and revise if appropriate. In June 2018, the writing group submitted a document with minor changes and with inclusion of important newly published randomized controlled trials with >100 participants and clinical outcomes at least 90 days after AIS. The document was sent to 14 peer reviewers. The writing group evaluated the peer reviewers' comments and revised when appropriate. The current final document was approved by all members of the writing group except when relationships with industry precluded members from voting and by the governing bodies of the AHA. These guidelines use the American College of Cardiology/AHA 2015 Class of Recommendations and Level of Evidence and the new AHA guidelines format. Results- These guidelines detail prehospital care, urgent and emergency evaluation and treatment with intravenous and intra-arterial therapies, and in-hospital management, including secondary prevention measures that are appropriately instituted within the first 2 weeks. The guidelines support the overarching concept of stroke systems of care in both the prehospital and hospital settings. Conclusions- These guidelines provide general recommendations based on the currently available evidence to guide clinicians caring for adult patients with acute arterial ischemic stroke. In many instances, however, only limited data exist demonstrating the urgent need for continued research on treatment of acute ischemic stroke.
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              2016 ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with EACTS.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                04 September 2020
                September 2020
                : 21
                : 18
                Affiliations
                [1 ]U.O.C di Medicina Interna con Stroke Care, Dipartimento di Promozione della Salute, Materno-Infantile, di Medicina Interna e Specialistica di Eccellenza “G. D’Alessandro”, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy; rosario94.norrito@ 123456gmail.com (R.L.N.); mario.daidone@ 123456unipa.it (M.D.); antonino.tuttolomondo@ 123456unipa.it (A.T.); carlodomenico.maida@ 123456icloud.com (A.P.)
                [2 ]Molecular and Clinical Medicine PhD Programme, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
                Author notes
                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                ijms-21-06454
                10.3390/ijms21186454
                7555650
                32899616
                e1f10979-6b8e-4cce-8867-1df2e99d72fd
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Molecular biology
                ischemic stroke,cardiac embolism,neuroinflammation
                Molecular biology
                ischemic stroke, cardiac embolism, neuroinflammation

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