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      A comprehensive insight on ocular pharmacokinetics

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="P1">Eye is a distinctive organ with protective anatomy and physiology. Several pharmacokinetics compartment model of ocular drug delivery has been developed for describing the absorption, distribution and elimination of ocular drugs in the eye. Determining pharmacokinetics parameters in ocular tissues is a major challenge because of the complex anatomy and dynamic physiological barrier of the eye. In this review, pharmacokinetics of these compartments exploring different drugs, delivery systems and routes of administration are discussed including factors affecting intraocular bioavailability. Factors such as pre-corneal fluid drainage, drug binding to tear proteins, systemic drug absorption, corneal factors, melanin binding, drug metabolism renders ocular delivery challenging and elaborated in this manuscript. Several compartment models are discussed those are developed in ocular drug delivery to study the pharmacokinetics parameters. There are several transporters present in both anterior and posterior segments of the eye which play a significant role in ocular pharmacokinetics and summarized briefly. Moreover, several ocular pharmacokinetics animal models and relevant studies are reviewed and discussed in addition to the pharmacokinetics of various ocular formulations. </p>

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          Most cited references 74

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          Ocular drug delivery.

          Ocular drug delivery has been a major challenge to pharmacologists and drug delivery scientists due to its unique anatomy and physiology. Static barriers (different layers of cornea, sclera, and retina including blood aqueous and blood-retinal barriers), dynamic barriers (choroidal and conjunctival blood flow, lymphatic clearance, and tear dilution), and efflux pumps in conjunction pose a significant challenge for delivery of a drug alone or in a dosage form, especially to the posterior segment. Identification of influx transporters on various ocular tissues and designing a transporter-targeted delivery of a parent drug has gathered momentum in recent years. Parallelly, colloidal dosage forms such as nanoparticles, nanomicelles, liposomes, and microemulsions have been widely explored to overcome various static and dynamic barriers. Novel drug delivery strategies such as bioadhesive gels and fibrin sealant-based approaches were developed to sustain drug levels at the target site. Designing noninvasive sustained drug delivery systems and exploring the feasibility of topical application to deliver drugs to the posterior segment may drastically improve drug delivery in the years to come. Current developments in the field of ophthalmic drug delivery promise a significant improvement in overcoming the challenges posed by various anterior and posterior segment diseases.
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            Challenges and obstacles of ocular pharmacokinetics and drug delivery.

             Arto Urtti (2006)
            Modern biological research has produced increasing number of promising therapeutic possibilities for medical treatment. These include for example growth factors, monoclonal antibodies, gene knockdown methods, gene therapy, surgical transplantations and tissue engineering. Ocular application of these possibilities involves drug delivery in many forms. Ocular drug delivery is hampered by the barriers protecting the eye. This review presents an overview of the essential factors in ocular pharmacokinetics and selected pharmacological future challenges in ophthalmology.
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              Pharmacokinetics of intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis).

              To describe the pharmacokinetics of 0.5 mg of intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis) and to compare it with that of 1.25 mg of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin), using the same rabbit model. Experimental animal study. Twenty-eight Dutch-belted rabbits. One eye of each of 20 rabbits was injected with 0.5 mg of intravitreal ranibizumab. Both eyes of each of 4 rabbits were enucleated at days 1, 3, 8, 15, and 29. Ranibizumab concentrations were measured in aqueous fluid, whole vitreous, and serum. A further 8 rabbits were used to measure serum and fellow ranibizumab at additional time points of 3 and 8 hours. Ranibizumab concentrations in the aqueous, vitreous, and serum. Although vitreous concentrations of ranibizumab declined in a monoexponential fashion with a half-life of 2.88 days, concentrations of >0.1 microg/ml ranibizumab were maintained in the vitreous humor for 29 days. Ranibizumab concentrations in the aqueous humor of the injected eye reached a peak concentration of 17.9 microg/ml, 3 days after drug administration. Elimination of ranibizumab from the aqueous humor paralleled that found in the vitreous humor, with a half-life value of 2.84 days. No ranibizumab was detected in the serum or the fellow eye. In the rabbit, the vitreous half-life of 0.5-mg intravitreal ranibizumab is 2.88 days, shorter than the half-life of 1.25-mg intravitreal bevacizumab of 4.32 days. No ranibizumab was detected in the serum or the fellow uninjected eye; whereas small amounts of intravitreal bevacizumab have been detected in the serum and fellow uninjected eye.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Delivery and Translational Research
                Drug Deliv. and Transl. Res.
                Springer Nature America, Inc
                2190-393X
                2190-3948
                December 2016
                October 31 2016
                December 2016
                : 6
                : 6
                : 735-754
                Article
                10.1007/s13346-016-0339-2
                5319401
                27798766
                © 2016

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