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      Correlation of trabeculae and papillary muscles with clinical and cardiac characteristics and impact on CMR measures of LV anatomy and function.

      Jacc. Cardiovascular Imaging

      Ventricular Function, Left, physiopathology, pathology, Ventricular Dysfunction, Left, Stroke Volume, Sex Factors, Reproducibility of Results, Reference Values, Predictive Value of Tests, physiology, anatomy & histology, Papillary Muscles, Observer Variation, Middle Aged, Male, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine, Linear Models, Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted, Hypertension, Humans, Heart Ventricles, Female, Cross-Sectional Studies, Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, Aged, Age Factors

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          The goal of this study was to assess the relationship of left ventricular (LV) trabeculae and papillary muscles (TPM) with clinical characteristics in a community-based, free-living adult cohort and to determine the effect of TPM on quantitative measures of LV volume, mass, and ejection fraction (EF). Hypertrabeculation has been associated with adverse cardiovascular events, but the distribution and clinical correlates of the volume and mass of the TPM in a normal left ventricle have not been well characterized. Short-axis cine cardiac magnetic resonance images, obtained using a steady-state free precession sequence from 1,494 members of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort, were analyzed with software that automatically segments TPM. Absolute TPM volume, TPM as a fraction of end-diastolic volume (EDV) (TPM/EDV), and TPM mass as a fraction of LV mass were determined in all offspring and in a referent group of offspring free of clinical cardiovascular disease and hypertension. In the referent group (mean age 61 ± 9 years; 262 men and 423 women), mean TPM was 23 ± 3% of LV EDV in both sexes (p = 0.9). TPM/EDV decreased with age (p < 0.02) but was not associated with body mass index. TPM mass as a fraction of LV mass was inversely correlated with age (p < 0.0001), body mass index (p < 0.018), and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001). Among all 1,494 participants (699 men), LV volumes decreased 23%, LV mass increased 28%, and EF increased by 7.5 EF units (p < 0.0001) when TPM were considered myocardial mass rather than part of the LV blood pool. Global cardiac magnetic resonance LV parameters were significantly affected by whether TPM was considered as part of the LV blood pool or as part of LV mass. Our cross-sectional data from a healthy referent group of adults free of clinical cardiovascular disease demonstrated that TPM/EDV decreases with increasing age in both sexes but is not related to hypertension or obesity. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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