Detection of arterial stiffness is an important method to predict the occurrence of hypertension complications and to screen patients with high cardiovascular risk. In order to predict the damage of AASI to the renal function of patients with essential hypertension, the prediction of AASI based on stepwise Regression equation scanning for renal function damage in patients with essential hypertension is proposed. Measure the 24 h ambulatory blood pressure of the selected subjects, establish a linear Regression equation scanning, and calculate the slope of the straight line, and finally, the slope is AASI. According to the quartiles, AASI is divided into four parts: group I < 0.53 (n = 49); 0.53 ≤ group II < 0.60 (n = 51); 0.60 ≤ group III < 0.69 (n = 48); group IV ≥ 0.69 (n = 44). Experiment result shows the following: with the increase of AASI, cystatin (CysC) also increased significantly, while CysC-eGFR decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Compared with groups I, II, and III, Scr and CysC in group IV increased (P < 0.05), and Ccr, CysC-eGFR, and (CKD-EPI)-eGFR all decreased (P < 0.05). AASI is positively correlated with CysC performance, and the correlation coefficient r is 0.637. It is negatively correlated with Ccr performance, and r is -0.361. It is negatively correlated with CysC-eGFR, and r is -0.698. And it is negatively correlated with (CKD-EPI)-eGFR, and r is -0.331. Age and 24 h PP also showed an increasing trend with the increase of AASI, and it suggests that age may be an influencing factor that promotes kidney damage caused by hypertension; it also suggests that AASI can be used as a new indicator of arterial compliance; AASI is linearly related to various indicators of renal damage and can be used as a predictive indicator of renal damage caused by essential hypertension; cystatin C and the estimated glomerular filtration rate CysC-eGFR based on cystatin C are better than other indicators reflecting glomerular filtration rate, more sensitively assess the degree of early renal damage. Obesity may also be a factor that promotes kidney damage caused by hypertension.