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      Magnitude of visual impairment and associated factors among patients attending ophthalmic clinics of Debre Markos referral hospital, north West Ethiopia

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          Abstract

          Background

          Globally, visual impairment affects about 285 million (4.25%) people, of those, 266.4 million were adults aged 18 years and above. Ethiopia is one of developing countries estimated to have high prevalence of visual impairment which have an enormous socio-economic impact. Also there is limited available information regarding with the magnitude of visual impairment among adults in our country at large and east Gojjam zone in specific. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of visual impairment and its associated factors among patients attending Debre Markos Referral Hospital ophthalmic clinics in east Gojjam zone, North West Ethiopia.

          Methods

          An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Debre Markos Referral Hospital which is the only hospital in east gojjam zone with ophthalmic care service from March 1 to 30, 2020 by using systematic random sampling technique to select study participants after informed consent was obtained.

          Data were collected by interview with 5% pretested, structured questionnaire and ocular examinations. Data were cleaned, coded and entered to Epi-data version-3.1, and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science software version 26. The descriptive statistics was presented in tables, text and graphs. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with visual impairment was conducted. Covariates with P-value < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

          Results

          A study was conducted among 312 study participants with 96% response rate. The magnitude of visual impairment was 114 (36.5%) [95% CI, (33.8, 39.2%)]. Age  > 50 years [AOR = 3.82; 95% CI (1.56, 9.35)], rural residency [AOR = 4.33 95% CI (1.30, 14.44)], inability to read and write [AOR = 3.21; 95% CI (1.18, 8.73)] and Cataract [AOR = 4.48; 95% CI (1.91, 10.52)] were factors significantly associated with visual impairment.

          Conclusions

          The overall magnitude of visual impairment was found to be high. Older age, rural residency, inability to read and write and cataract were associated with visual impairment. Increasing literacy, expanded cataract surgery, as well as community based visual acuity screening especially for elders and rural residents is crucial. Zonal police makers should give emphasis on prevention of visual impairment to decrease economic, social and political burden of visual disability.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12886-021-01863-0.

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          Most cited references37

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          Global causes of blindness and distance vision impairment 1990-2020: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

          Contemporary data for causes of vision impairment and blindness form an important basis of recommendations in public health policies. Refreshment of the Global Vision Database with recently published data sources permitted modelling of cause of vision loss data from 1990 to 2015, further disaggregation by cause, and forecasts to 2020.
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            Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010.

            From the most recent data the magnitude of visual impairment and its causes in 2010 have been estimated, globally and by WHO region. The definitions of visual impairment are the current definitions of presenting vision in the International Classification of Diseases version 10. A systematic review was conducted of published and unpublished surveys from 2000 to the present. For countries without data on visual impairment, estimates were based on newly developed imputation methods that took into account country economic status as proxy. Surveys from 39 countries satisfied the inclusion criteria for this study. Globally, the number of people of all ages visually impaired is estimated to be 285 million, of whom 39 million are blind, with uncertainties of 10-20%. People 50 years and older represent 65% and 82% of visually impaired and blind, respectively. The major causes of visual impairment are uncorrected refractive errors (43%) followed by cataract (33%); the first cause of blindness is cataract (51%). This study indicates that visual impairment in 2010 is a major health issue that is unequally distributed among the WHO regions; the preventable causes are as high as 80% of the total global burden.
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              Magnitude, temporal trends, and projections of the global prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

              Global and regional prevalence estimates for blindness and vision impairment are important for the development of public health policies. We aimed to provide global estimates, trends, and projections of global blindness and vision impairment.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                abebegeletie943@gmail.com
                fasil.n@gmail.com
                haymanotzeleke89@gmail.com
                bitewtefera1@gmail.com
                shegawtesfa201012@gmail.com
                tamenefet732@gmail.com
                Journal
                BMC Ophthalmol
                BMC Ophthalmol
                BMC Ophthalmology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2415
                19 February 2021
                19 February 2021
                2021
                : 21
                : 96
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.472465.6, ISNI 0000 0004 4914 796X, Department of Nursing, , Wolkite University, ; Wolkite, Ethiopia
                [2 ]GRID grid.449044.9, ISNI 0000 0004 0480 6730, Department of Nursing, , Debre Markos University, ; Debre Markos, Ethiopia
                Article
                1863
                10.1186/s12886-021-01863-0
                7893842
                33607949
                e20ce26a-4442-4432-b85b-0dd09362e1d5
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                History
                : 2 November 2020
                : 27 January 2021
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Ophthalmology & Optometry
                Ophthalmology & Optometry

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