Objective To explore the PE sport load and its influencing factors of primary school students and to provide the basis for scientific and reasonable arrangement of PE sport load and increase its exercise effect.
Methods A total of 208 students from grade 5 and grade 6 of Small Wild Goose Pagoda Primary School in Xi’an were selected. Stopwatch and PolarOH1 photosensitive heart rate sensor were used to record the time of each PE lesson, the students’ practice time and the continuous heart rate of the students during PE lesson. The exercise intensity and sport load of PE lesson were calculated by heart rate interval and training impulse (TRIMP) to evaluate the scientific nature and effectiveness of physical education.
Results The average continuous heart rate was (132.5±15.2) time per min. The primary school students’ PE classes were mainly of low-moderate intensity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) accounted for 36.7% of the total class time. The average TRIMP of PE was (76.62±26.69). The average exercise density was 53.6%, and the average time of preparation, basic and end parts was 13.32, 25.57 and 0.50 min, respectively.
Conclusion The PE intensity and TRIMP of primary school students are too small, the cumulative time of MVPA is insufficient, the PE exercise density is appropriate, the preparation part is too long, and the end part is too short. Therefore, the PE exercise load should be strengthened to improve the sports quality of PE students.
【摘要】 目的 探究小学生体育课运动负荷及其影响因素, 为科学合理安排体育课运动负荷、增加锻炼效果提供依据。 方法 选取西安市小雁塔小学五、六年级208名学生, 采用秒表和PolarOHl光感心率传感器分别记录每节体育课各部分 时间、学生练习时间以及学生在体育课期间的连续心率, 通过心率区间和训练冲量 (training impulse, TRIMP) 计算体育课 运动强度和运动负荷。 结果 小学生体育课平均心率为(132.5±15.2)次/min, 以小-中等强度为主, 中-髙强度体力活动 (MVPA)占课堂总时间的36.7%;体育课平均TRIMP值为(76.62±26.69);体育课平均练习密度为53.6%, 体育课准备部 分、基本部分和结束部分的平均时间分别为13.32, 25.57, 0.50 min。 结论 小学生体育课运动强度和TRIMP值过小, MVPA累积时间不足, 体育课练习密度适宜, 准备部分过长, 结束部分过短。要加强、完善体育课的运动负荷和结构安排, 提髙 学生在体育课中的锻炼效果。