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      Problem gambling among Czech adolescents: An exploration of its relationship to early initiation of tobacco smoking

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          Abstract

          Background and aims

          Gambling in adolescence is often related to licit and illicit substance use. Some evidence shows that teenage smokers gamble more than non-smokers. The aim of the study is to analyze the relationship between problem gambling and smoking among Czech adolescents.

          Methods

          Data on 6,082 adolescents (50.1% boys and 49.9% girls) aged 15–19 years were collected as part of the ESPAD study in the Czech Republic in 2015. Logistic regression and linear regression models were used to test the hypothesis that the early onset of daily smoking increases the risk of problem gambling.

          Results

          The age of initiation of daily smoking seems to be a more reliable marker of the risk of problem gambling than smoking status or intensity of smoking. More than 20% of smokers who started smoking daily at the age of 12 years or earlier are at risk of problem gambling, which shows a significantly increased probability compared to non-smokers (OR = 2.7). Other factors that increase the chances of becoming a problem gambler include being male, of higher age, and a student of a secondary school.

          Discussion and conclusions

          The relationship between adolescent smoking and gambling is complex and is likely to be influenced by other underlying factors. Early daily smokers and at-risk gamblers tend in a similar way to risky behavior as a result of impulsivity. Interventions targeting early smoking and other substance-use behavior should not only aim at quitting smoking but could also include preventing smokers from developing problem gambling.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Problematic internet use and problematic online gaming are not the same: findings from a large nationally representative adolescent sample.

          There is an ongoing debate in the literature whether problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic online gaming (POG) are two distinct conceptual and nosological entities or whether they are the same. The present study contributes to this question by examining the interrelationship and the overlap between PIU and POG in terms of sex, school achievement, time spent using the Internet and/or online gaming, psychological well-being, and preferred online activities. Questionnaires assessing these variables were administered to a nationally representative sample of adolescent gamers (N=2,073; Mage=16.4 years, SD=0.87; 68.4% male). Data showed that Internet use was a common activity among adolescents, while online gaming was engaged in by a considerably smaller group. Similarly, more adolescents met the criteria for PIU than for POG, and a small group of adolescents showed symptoms of both problem behaviors. The most notable difference between the two problem behaviors was in terms of sex. POG was much more strongly associated with being male. Self-esteem had low effect sizes on both behaviors, while depressive symptoms were associated with both PIU and POG, affecting PIU slightly more. In terms of preferred online activities, PIU was positively associated with online gaming, online chatting, and social networking, while POG was only associated with online gaming. Based on our findings, POG appears to be a conceptually different behavior from PIU, and therefore the data support the notion that Internet Addiction Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder are separate nosological entities.
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            Prevalence of Adolescent Problem Gambling: A Systematic Review of Recent Research

            Previous research has shown that gambling is a popular activity among adolescents. Following a rapid expansion of legalized gambling opportunities and the emergence of new forms of gambling, many researchers have carried out studies on adolescent gambling and problem gambling. The present paper reviews studies that have been conducted worldwide since 2000, and then presents a more detailed picture of adolescent gambling research in Europe, by providing a country-by country analysis. After an extensive search on academic databases and following an exclusion process, 44 studies were identified. The findings showed that 0.2–12.3 % of youth meet criteria for problem gambling, notwithstanding differences among assessment instruments, cut-offs, and timeframes. However, despite this variability, several demographic characteristics were associated with adolescent gambling involvement and problem gambling. It is concluded that a small but significant minority of adolescents have gambling-related problems. Such findings will hopefully encourage more research into youth gambling to further understand the determinants of this phenomenon.
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              The Lie/Bet Questionnaire for screening pathological gamblers.

               B. Tan,  R Nora,  C Engelhart (1997)
              A 2-item questionnaire was derived from 10 DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. Subjects were 362 men, 191 classified as pathological gamblers and 171 as nonproblem-gambling controls. The two items were significant in sensitivity and negative predictive value and significant in specificity and positive predictive value.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Behav Addict
                J Behav Addict
                jba
                JBA
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                01 February 2019
                March 2019
                : 8
                : 1
                : 114-122
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague , Prague, Czech Republic
                [2 ]National Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Addiction, Office of the Government of the Czech Republic , Prague, Czech Republic
                [3 ]Epidemiological and Clinical Research of Addictions, National Institute of Mental Health , Klecany, Czech Republic
                [4 ]Department of Addictology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague , Prague, Czech Republic
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Pavla Chomynová; National Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Addiction, Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, Nabrezi E. Benese 4, Prague 1, CZ-11801, Czech Republic; Phone: +420 224 003 822; E-mail: chomynova.pavla@ 123456vlada.cz
                Article
                10.1556/2006.8.2019.04
                7044610
                30704262
                © 2019 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 38, Pages: 9
                Product
                Funding
                Funding sources: This paper was supported by the project No. LO1611 with a financial support from the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic under the NPU I program.
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