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      A brief report on the relationship between self-control, video game addiction and academic achievement in normal and ADHD students

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          Background and aims: Over the last two decades, research into video game addiction has grown increasingly. The present research aimed to examine the relationship between video game addiction, self-control, and academic achievement of normal and ADHD high school students. Based on previous research it was hypothesized that (i) there would be a relationship between video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement (ii) video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement would differ between male and female students, and (iii) the relationship between video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement would differ between normal students and ADHD students. Methods: The research population comprised first grade high school students of Khomeini-Shahr (a city in the central part of Iran). From this population, a sample group of 339 students participated in the study. The survey included the Game Addiction Scale ( Lemmens, Valkenburg & Peter, 2009), the Self-Control Scale ( Tangney, Baumeister & Boone, 2004) and the ADHD Diagnostic checklist ( Kessler et al., 2007). In addition to questions relating to basic demographic information, students’ Grade Point Average (GPA) for two terms was used for measuring their academic achievement. These hypotheses were examined using a regression analysis. Results: Among Iranian students, the relationship between video game addiction, self-control, and academic achievement differed between male and female students. However, the relationship between video game addiction, self-control, academic achievement, and type of student was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Although the results cannot demonstrate a causal relationship between video game use, video game addiction, and academic achievement, they suggest that high involvement in playing video games leaves less time for engaging in academic work.

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          Most cited references 60

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          High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success.

          What good is self-control? We incorporated a new measure of individual differences in self-control into two large investigations of a broad spectrum of behaviors. The new scale showed good internal consistency and retest reliability. Higher scores on self-control correlated with a higher grade point average, better adjustment (fewer reports of psychopathology, higher self-esteem), less binge eating and alcohol abuse, better relationships and interpersonal skills, secure attachment, and more optimal emotional responses. Tests for curvilinearity failed to indicate any drawbacks of so-called overcontrol, and the positive effects remained after controlling for social desirability. Low self-control is thus a significant risk factor for a broad range of personal and interpersonal problems.
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            Development and Validation of a Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents

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              Validity of the World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener in a representative sample of health plan members.

              The validity of the six-question World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener was assessed in a sample of subscribers to a large health plan in the US. A convenience subsample of 668 subscribers was administered the ASRS Screener twice to assess test-retest reliability and then a third time in conjunction with a clinical interviewer for DSM-IV adult ADHD. The data were weighted to adjust for discrepancies between the sample and the population on socio-demographics and past medical claims. Internal consistency reliability of the continuous ASRS Screener was in the range 0.63-0.72 and test-retest reliability (Pearson correlations) in the range 0.58-0.77. A four-category version The ASRS Screener had strong concordance with clinician diagnoses, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.90. The brevity and ability to discriminate DSM-IV cases from non-cases make the six-question ASRS Screener attractive for use both in community epidemiological surveys and in clinical outreach and case-finding initiatives. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

                Author and article information

                J Behav Addict
                J Behav Addict
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó
                December 2013
                13 December 2013
                : 2
                : 4
                : 239-243 (pp. 239-243)
                [ 1Department of Educational Psychology, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh, Iran ]
                [ 2Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom ]
                Author notes
                [* ] Corresponding author. Mark D. Griffiths Professor of Gambling Studies; International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Division, Nottingham Trent University, Burton Street, Nottingham, NG1 4BU, United Kingdom E-mail: mark.griffiths@

                Conflicts of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

                Authors' contribution: The first author designed the study and collected the data. The second and third authors analysed the data. The second and fourth authors wrote the paper.

                Copyright: © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding sources: None.
                Brief Report


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