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      New species of Caromiobenella Jeon, Lee & Soh, 2018 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Monstrilloida) from Chuja Island, Korea

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          Male monstrilloid copepods belonging to the genus Caromiobenella Jeon, Lee & Soh, 2018 were collected from Chuja Island, Jeju, Korea, using a light trap. This paper describes a new species, Caromiobenella ohtsukai sp. n., based on the display of reduced, knob-like fifth legs on the ventral side of the first urosomal somite. A unique combination of male genitalia features and number of caudal setae further confirms its specificity. Molecular analysis based on two partial gene sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) and 28S ribosomal RNA (28S rRNA) also supports the designation of this species by showing a relevant divergence from known congeners. Caromiobenella ohtsukai sp. n. is the ninth member of this genus and also the ninth monstrilloid reported from Korea.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Relationship between morphological taxonomy and molecular divergence within Crustacea: proposal of a molecular threshold to help species delimitation.

          With today's technology for production of molecular sequences, DNA taxonomy and barcoding arose as a new tool for evolutionary biology and ecology. However, their validities still need to be empirically evaluated. Of most importance is the strength of the correlation between morphological taxonomy and molecular divergence and the possibility to define some molecular thresholds. Here, we report measurements of this correlation for two mitochondrial genes (COI and 16S rRNA) within the sub-phylum Crustacea. Perl scripts were developed to ensure objectivity, reproducibility, and exhaustiveness of our tests. Our analysis reveals a general correlation between molecular divergence and taxonomy. This correlation is particularly high for shallow taxonomic levels allowing us to propose a COI universal crustacean threshold to help species delimitation. At higher taxonomic levels this correlation decreases, particularly when comparing different families. Those results plead for DNA use in taxonomy and suggest an operational method to help crustacean species delimitation that is linked to the phylogenetic species definition. This pragmatic tool is expected to fine tune the present classification, and not, as some would have believed, to tear it apart.
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            Assessing substitution saturation with DAMBE

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              Extraordinary host switching in siphonostomatoid copepods and the demise of the Monstrilloida: integrating molecular data, ontogeny and antennulary morphology.

              Copepods exhibit an astounding variety of lifestyles, host associations and morphology, to the extent that their crustacean affinities may be obscured. Relationships among the ten copepod orders based on morphological characters remain equivocal. Here we test the ordinal status of the enigmatic Monstrilloida using SSU rDNA gene sequences, comparative morphological data (antennulary sensory interface) and ontogenetic data (caudal ramus setation patterns). Bayesian analysis unexpectedly revealed the Monstrilloida are nested within a fish-parasitic clade of the Siphonostomatoida and share a common ancestor with the stem species of the caligiform families (sea-lice). This unforeseen relationship is congruent with both antennulary and caudal ramus morphology. The divergence of the monstrilloids from an ectoparasitic, vertebrate-associated ancestor involved radical changes in host utilization, body plan and life cycle strategy, a combination rarely observed and probably unique in metazoan parasites. Adult monstrilloids secondarily returned to a free-living, predator-exposed mode of life and we postulate the pressure on maintaining a functional approaching-predator detection system has progenetically delayed the suppression (as in post-copepodid caligiform instars) of the 5-point antennulary sensory array. The homoplastic evolution of the frontal filament in Siphonostomatoida is discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                ZooKeys
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2019
                8 January 2019
                : 814
                : 33-51
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea Hanyang University Seoul Korea, South
                [2 ] Faculty of Marine Technology, College of Fisheries and Ocean Science, Chonnam National University, Yeosu, Jeollanam-do, South Korea Chonnam National University Yeosu Korea, South
                Author notes
                Corresponding authors: Wonchoel Lee ( wlee@ 123456hanyang.ac.kr ); Ho Young Soh ( hysoh@ 123456chonnam.ac.kr )

                Academic editor: D. Defaye

                Article
                10.3897/zookeys.814.29126
                6333727
                Donggu Jeon, Wonchoel Lee, Ho Young Soh

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Animalia
                Arthropoda
                Copepoda
                Crustacea
                Invertebrata
                Maxillopoda
                Monstrillidae
                Monstrilloida
                Phylogeny
                Systematics
                Taxonomy
                Cenozoic
                Neogene
                Asia
                Far East
                Korea
                South Korea

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