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      Dialyzing a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: What a Nephrologist Needs to Know

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          Abstract

          The percentage of dialysis centers that have reported dialyzing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients increased from 11% in 1985 to 37% in 2000. Being primary care physicians for the dialysis patients, nephrologists are frequently confronted with the management of HIV-infected dialysis patients especially in urban centers. The aims of the present review are to discuss issues that are unique to HIV infection and end-stage renal disease, and to provide dialysis caretakers with sufficient information to help them optimize care and improve outcomes of these patients. Issues related to the choice of renal replacement therapy, vascular access, management of anemia, vaccination, and antiretroviral therapies are discussed in detail.

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          Most cited references 77

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          Interleukin 6 induces human immunodeficiency virus expression in infected monocytic cells alone and in synergy with tumor necrosis factor alpha by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms

          The immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) directly upregulates production of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in acutely as well as in chronically infected cells of monocytic lineage. In addition, IL-6 synergizes with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the induction of latent HIV expression. Unlike TNF-alpha, upregulation of viral expression induced by IL-6 alone does not occur at the transcriptional level and it is not associated with accumulation of HIV RNA. However, when IL-6 and TNF-alpha synergistically stimulate HIV production, accumulation of HIV RNA and increased transcription are observed, indicating that IL-6 affects HIV expression at multiple (transcriptional and post-transcriptional) levels.
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            Effectiveness of Potent Antiretroviral Therapy on Time to AIDS and Death in Men With Known HIV Infection Duration

             Roger Detels (1998)
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              Nephropathy and establishment of a renal reservoir of HIV type 1 during primary infection.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2004
                October 2004
                01 December 2004
                : 24
                : 5
                : 511-521
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Tex., USA
                Article
                81041 Am J Nephrol 2004;24:511–521
                10.1159/000081041
                15452404
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 119, Pages: 11
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/81041
                Categories
                In-Depth Topic Review

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