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      The Spirochete Brachyspira pilosicoli, Enteric Pathogen of Animals and Humans

      Clinical Microbiology Reviews

      American Society for Microbiology

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          Abstract

          SUMMARY

          Brachyspira pilosicoliis a slow-growing anaerobic spirochete that colonizes the large intestine. Colonization occurs commonly in pigs and adult chickens, causing colitis/typhlitis, diarrhea, poor growth rates, and reduced production. Colonization of humans also is common in some populations (individuals living in village and peri-urban settings in developing countries, recent immigrants from developing countries, homosexual males, and HIV-positive patients), but the spirochete rarely is investigated as a potential human enteric pathogen. In part this is due to its slow growth and specialized growth requirements, meaning that it is not detectable in human fecal samples using routine diagnostic methods. Nevertheless, it has been identified histologically attached to the colon and rectum in patients with conditions such as chronic diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and/or nonspecific abdominal discomfort, and one survey of Australian Aboriginal children showed that colonization was significantly associated with failure to thrive. B. pilosicolihas been detected in the bloodstream of elderly patients or individuals with chronic conditions such as alcoholism and malignancies. This review describes the spirochete and associated diseases. It aims to encourage clinicians and clinical microbiologists to consider B. pilosicoliin their differential diagnoses and to develop and use appropriate diagnostic protocols to identify the spirochete in clinical specimens.

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          Most cited references222

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          Genome Sequence of the Pathogenic Intestinal Spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Reveals Adaptations to Its Lifestyle in the Porcine Large Intestine

          Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is an anaerobic intestinal spirochete that colonizes the large intestine of pigs and causes swine dysentery, a disease of significant economic importance. The genome sequence of B. hyodysenteriae strain WA1 was determined, making it the first representative of the genus Brachyspira to be sequenced, and the seventeenth spirochete genome to be reported. The genome consisted of a circular 3,000,694 base pair (bp) chromosome, and a 35,940 bp circular plasmid that has not previously been described. The spirochete had 2,122 protein-coding sequences. Of the predicted proteins, more had similarities to proteins of the enteric Escherichia coli and Clostridium species than they did to proteins of other spirochetes. Many of these genes were associated with transport and metabolism, and they may have been gradually acquired through horizontal gene transfer in the environment of the large intestine. A reconstruction of central metabolic pathways identified a complete set of coding sequences for glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, a non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, nucleotide metabolism, lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis, and a respiratory electron transport chain. A notable finding was the presence on the plasmid of the genes involved in rhamnose biosynthesis. Potential virulence genes included those for 15 proteases and six hemolysins. Other adaptations to an enteric lifestyle included the presence of large numbers of genes associated with chemotaxis and motility. B. hyodysenteriae has diverged from other spirochetes in the process of accommodating to its habitat in the porcine large intestine.
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            Development of a duplex PCR assay for detection of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli in pig feces.

            A duplex PCR (D-PCR) amplifying portions of the Brachyspira hyodysenteriae NADH oxidase gene and the B. pilosicoli 16S rRNA gene was developed and then tested on DNA extracted from 178 porcine fecal samples. The feces also underwent anaerobic culture and species-specific PCRs. Fecal extraction-D-PCR detected seven additional samples containing B. hyodysenteriae and five more containing B. pilosicoli.
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              Prevalence of intestinal pathogens in Danish finishing pig herds.

              Our aim was to determine the prevalence of the intestinal bacteria: Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Serpulina intermedia, Brachyspira innocens, Brachyspira pilosicoli, pathogenic Escherichia coli (serogroups O138, O139, O141 and O149) and Salmonella enterica in Danish finishing pig herds. A total of 79 herds was randomly selected and visited during 1998. From each herd, 20 faecal samples were collected from individual pigs weighing 30-50kg. Furthermore, 10 pooled pen samples were collected and examined for S. enterica. In total, 1580 faecal samples and 790 pen samples were collected and examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or culture. L. intracellularis was found in 74 herds (93.7%), B. hyodysenteriae in two herds (2.5%), S. intermedia in 10 herds (12. 7%), B. innocens in 27 herds (34.2%), B. pilosicoli in 15 herds (19. 0%), pathogenic E. coli in 19 herds (24.1%) and S. enterica in eight herds (10.1%). The within-herd prevalences of L. intracellularis and B. hyodysenteriae were 25-30%; the within-herd prevalences of the other agents were 5-10%. Three herds (4%) were not infected with any of the bacteria and 25 herds (32%) were only infected with L. intracellularis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical Microbiology Reviews
                Clin Microbiol Reviews
                American Society for Microbiology
                0893-8512
                1098-6618
                January 2018
                November 29 2017
                : 31
                : 1
                Article
                10.1128/CMR.00087-17
                5740978
                29187397
                e24c7d77-ad9b-4558-8d3c-f2d186e86a88
                © 2017
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