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      A New Porous Hybrid Material Derived From Silica Fume and Alginate for Sustainable Pollutants Reduction

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          Abstract

          In this work a new mesoporous adsorbent material obtained from a natural, high abundant raw material and a high volume industrial by-product is presented. The material is consolidated by the gelling properties of alginate and by decomposition of sodium-bicarbonate controlled porosity at low temperatures (70–80°C) at different scale lengths. The structural, thermal, and morphological characterization shows that the material is a mesoporous organic-inorganic hybrid. The material is tested as adsorbent, showing high performances. Methylene blue, used as model pollutant, can be adsorbed and removed from aqueous solutions even at a high concentration with efficiency up to 94%. By coating the material with a 100 nm thin film of titania, good photodegradation performance (more than 20%) can be imparted. Based on embodied energy and carbon footprint of its primary production, the sustainability of the new obtained material is evaluated and quantified in respect to activated carbon as well. It is shown that the new proposed material has an embodied energy lower than one order of magnitude in respect to the one of activated carbon, which represents the gold standards. The versatility of the new material is also demonstrated in terms of its design and manufacturing possibilities In addition, this material can be printed in 3D. Finally, preliminary results about its ability to capture diesel exhaust particulate matter are reported. The sample exposed to diesel contains a large amount of carbon in its surface. At the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that hybrid porous materials are proposed as a new class of sustainable materials, produced to reduce pollutants in the wastewaters and in the atmosphere.

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          Most cited references 53

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          Reporting physisorption data for gas/solid systems with special reference to the determination of surface area and porosity (Recommendations 1984)

           K. S. W. Sing (1985)
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            Alginate hydrogels as biomaterials.

            [Image: see text] Alginate hydrogels are proving to have a wide applicability as biomaterials. They have been used as scaffolds for tissue engineering, as delivery vehicles for drugs, and as model extracellular matrices for basic biological studies. These applications require tight control of a number of material properties including mechanical stiffness, swelling, degradation, cell attachment, and binding or release of bioactive molecules. Control over these properties can be achieved by chemical or physical modifications of the polysaccharide itself or the gels formed from alginate. The utility of these modified alginate gels as biomaterials has been demonstrated in a number of in vitro and in vivo studies.Micro-CT images of bone-like constructs that result from transplantation of osteoblasts on gels that degrade over a time frame of several months leading to improved bone formation.
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              Polymer/silica nanocomposites: preparation, characterization, properties, and applications.

               Jian Shen,  Hua Zou,  Annie Wu (2008)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Chem
                Front Chem
                Front. Chem.
                Frontiers in Chemistry
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2296-2646
                19 March 2018
                2018
                : 6
                Affiliations
                1Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, INSTM and Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Brescia , Brescia, Italy
                2Department of Industrial Chemistry “Toso Montanari”, University of Bologna , Bologna, Italy
                3Interdepartmental Center for Industrial Research “Energy and Environment”, University of Bologna , Ravenna, Italy
                4Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, INSTM Trieste Research Unit and ICCOM-CNR Trieste Research Unit , Trieste, Italy
                5Petroceramics Spa, Kilometro Rosso Science & Technology Park , Stezzano, Italy
                Author notes

                Edited by: Avelino Núñez-Delgado, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain

                Reviewed by: Wenbo Wang, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics (CAS), China; Cuong Pham-Huu, UMR7515 Institut de Chimie et Procédés pour l'Energie, l'Environnement et la Santé (ICPEES), France

                *Correspondence: Elza Bontempi elza.bontempi@ 123456unibs.it

                This article was submitted to Green and Sustainable Chemistry, a section of the journal Frontiers in Chemistry

                Article
                10.3389/fchem.2018.00060
                5867481
                Copyright © 2018 Zanoletti, Vassura, Venturini, Monai, Montini, Federici, Zacco, Treccani and Bontempi.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 3, Equations: 4, References: 55, Pages: 13, Words: 8560
                Categories
                Chemistry
                Original Research

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