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      Combining Z-Score and Maternal Copy Number Variation Analysis Increases the Positive Rate and Accuracy in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing

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          Abstract

          Objective: To evaluate positive rate and accuracy of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) combining Z-score and maternal copy number variation (CNV) analysis. To assess the relationship between Z-score and positive predictive value (PPV).

          Methods: This prospective study included 61525 pregnancies to determine the correlation between Z-scores and PPV in NIPT, and 3184 pregnancies to perform maternal CNVs analysis. Positive results of NIPT were verified by prenatal diagnosis and/or following-up after birth. Z-score grouping, logistic regression analysis, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and S-curve trends were applied to correlation analysis of Z-scores and PPV. The maternal CNVs were classified according to the technical standard for the interpretation of ACMG. Through genetic counseling, fetal and maternal phenotypes and family histories were collected.

          Results: Of the 3184 pregnant women, 22 pregnancies were positive for outlier Z-scores, suggesting fetal aneuploidy. 12 out of 22 pregnancies were true positive (PPV = 54.5%). 17 pregnancies were found maternal pathogenic or likely pathogenic CNVs (> 0.5 Mb) through maternal CNV analysis. Prenatal diagnosis revealed that 7 out of 11 fetuses carried the same CNVs as the mother. Considering the abnormal biochemical indicators during pregnancy and CNV-related clinical phenotypes after birth, two male fetuses without prenatal diagnosis were suspected to carry the maternally-derived CNVs. Further, we identified three CNV-related family histories with variable phenotypes. Statistical analysis of the 61525 pregnancies revealed that Z-scores of chromosomes 21 and 18 were significantly associated with PPV at 3 ≤ Z ≤ 40. Notably, three pregnancies with Z > 40 were both maternal full aneuploidy. At Z < -3, fetuses carried microdeletions instead of monosomies. Sex chromosome trisomy was significantly higher PPV than monosomy.

          Conclusion: The positive rate of the NIPT screening model combining Z-score and maternal CNV analysis increased from 6.91‰ (22/3184) to 12.25‰ (39/3184) and true positives increased from 12 to 21 pregnancies. We found that this method could improve the positive rate and accuracy of NIPT for aneuploidies and CNVs without increasing testing costs. It provides an early warning for the inheritance of pathogenic CNVs to the next generation.

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          Most cited references38

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          Technical standards for the interpretation and reporting of constitutional copy number variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen)

          Copy number analysis to detect disease-causing losses and gains across the genome is recommended for the evaluation of individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and/or multiple congenital anomalies, as well as for fetuses with ultrasound abnormalities. In the decade that this analysis has been in widespread clinical use, tremendous strides have been made in understanding the effects of copy number variants (CNVs) in both affected individuals and the general population. However, continued broad implementation of array- and next-generation sequencing-based technologies will expand the types of CNVs encountered in the clinical setting, as well as our understanding of their impact on human health. To assist clinical laboratories in the classification and reporting of CNVs, irrespective of the technology used to identify them, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics has developed the following professional standards in collaboration with the NIH-funded Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) project. This update introduces a quantitative, evidence-based scoring framework; encourages the implementation of the 5-tier classification system widely used in sequence variant classification; and recommends “uncoupling” the evidence-based classification of a variant from its potential implications for a particular individual. These professional standards will guide the evaluation of constitutional CNVs and encourage consistency and transparency across clinical laboratories.
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            Presence of fetal DNA in maternal plasma and serum.

            The potential use of plasma and serum for molecular diagnosis has generated interest. Tumour DNA has been found in 'the plasma and serum of cancer patients, and molecular analysis has been done on this material. We investigated the equivalent condition in pregnancy-that is, whether fetal DNA is present in maternal plasma and serum. We used a rapid-boiling method to extract DNA from plasma and serum. DNA from plasma, serum, and nucleated blood cells from 43 pregnant women underwent a sensitive Y-PCR assay to detect circulating male fetal DNA from women bearing male fetuses. Fetus-derived Y sequences were detected in 24 (80%) of the 30 maternal plasma samples, and in 21 (70%) of the 30 maternal serum samples, from women bearing male fetuses. These results were obtained with only 10 microL of the samples. When DNA from nucleated blood cells extracted from a similar volume of blood was used, only five (17%) of the 30 samples gave a positive Y signal. None of the 13 women bearing female fetuses, and none of the ten non-pregnant control women, had positive results for plasma, serum or nucleated blood cells. Our finding of circulating fetal DNA in maternal plasma may have implications for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis, and for improving our understanding of the fetomaternal relationship.
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              Chromosomal microarray versus karyotyping for prenatal diagnosis.

              Chromosomal microarray analysis has emerged as a primary diagnostic tool for the evaluation of developmental delay and structural malformations in children. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy, efficacy, and incremental yield of chromosomal microarray analysis as compared with karyotyping for routine prenatal diagnosis. Samples from women undergoing prenatal diagnosis at 29 centers were sent to a central karyotyping laboratory. Each sample was split in two; standard karyotyping was performed on one portion and the other was sent to one of four laboratories for chromosomal microarray. We enrolled a total of 4406 women. Indications for prenatal diagnosis were advanced maternal age (46.6%), abnormal result on Down's syndrome screening (18.8%), structural anomalies on ultrasonography (25.2%), and other indications (9.4%). In 4340 (98.8%) of the fetal samples, microarray analysis was successful; 87.9% of samples could be used without tissue culture. Microarray analysis of the 4282 nonmosaic samples identified all the aneuploidies and unbalanced rearrangements identified on karyotyping but did not identify balanced translocations and fetal triploidy. In samples with a normal karyotype, microarray analysis revealed clinically relevant deletions or duplications in 6.0% with a structural anomaly and in 1.7% of those whose indications were advanced maternal age or positive screening results. In the context of prenatal diagnostic testing, chromosomal microarray analysis identified additional, clinically significant cytogenetic information as compared with karyotyping and was equally efficacious in identifying aneuploidies and unbalanced rearrangements but did not identify balanced translocations and triploidies. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01279733.).
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Genet
                Front Genet
                Front. Genet.
                Frontiers in Genetics
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-8021
                02 June 2022
                2022
                : 13
                : 887176
                Affiliations
                [1] 1 Department of Medical Genetics , Changzhi Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital , Changzhi, China
                [2] 2 School of Life Sciences , Fudan University , Shanghai, China
                [3] 3 Department of Pediatrics , Changzhi Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital , Changzhi, China
                [4] 4 Obstetrics Department , Changzhi Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital , Changzhi, China
                [5] 5 Human Phenome Institute , Zhangjiang Fudan International Innovation Center , MOE Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology , Fudan University , Shanghai, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Cynthia Casson Morton, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, United States

                Reviewed by: Ye Cao, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China

                Zirui Dong, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China

                *Correspondence: Yu An, Anyu@ 123456fudan.edu.cn ; Xiaoze Li, lixiaoze520@ 123456126.com

                This article was submitted to Human and Medical Genomics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Genetics

                Article
                887176
                10.3389/fgene.2022.887176
                9201951
                35719402
                e2503312-a5b4-4b0e-91e9-3dcd0bf10f3b
                Copyright © 2022 Chen, Wang, Hu, Tao, Song, An and Li.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 01 March 2022
                : 02 May 2022
                Categories
                Genetics
                Original Research

                Genetics
                non-invasive prenatal testing (nipt),copy number variations (cnvs),aneuploidies,prenatal diagnosis,birth defects,positive predictive value (ppv),z-scores

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