Cancer is a fatal disorder that affects people across the globe, yet existing therapeutics are ineffective. The development of submicrometer transport for optimizing the biodistribution of systemically provided medications is the focus of nanomedicine. Nanoparticle- (NP-) based treatments may enable the development of novel therapeutic approaches to combat this deadly disorder. In multifunctional, multimodal imaging, and drug delivery carriers, NPs generally play a major role. They have emerged as potential strategies for the invention of innovative therapeutic procedures in the last decade. The exponential growth of nanotechnologies in recent years has increased public awareness of the application of these innovative therapeutic approaches. Many tumor-targeted nanomedicines have been studied in cancer therapy, and there is clear evidence for a significant improvement in the therapeutic index of antineoplastic drugs. Age-related factors such as metabolic and physiological alterations in old age and inadequate animal models are currently understudied in nanomedicine and pharmacology. This review highlighted the most important targeting approaches, as well as public awareness, therapeutic advancements, and future prospects in age-related metabolic variations, and tumor-targeted nanomedicine studies.