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      Use of mobile phone during pregnancy and the risk of spontaneous abortion

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          Abstract

          Background

          Exposure to electromagnetic fields of cell phones increasingly occurs, but the potential influence on spontaneous abortion has not been thoroughly investigated.

          Methods

          In a case–control study, 292 women who had an unexplained spontaneous abortion at < 14 weeks gestation and 308 pregnant women > 14 weeks gestation were enrolled. Two data collection forms were completed; one was used to collect data about socioeconomic and obstetric characteristics, medical and reproductive history, and lifestyles. Another was used to collect data about the use of cell phones during pregnancy. For the consideration of cell phone effects, we measured the average calling time per day, the location of the cell phones when not in use, use of hands-free equipment, use of phones for other applications, the specific absorption rate (SAR) reported by the manufacturer and the average of the effective SAR (average duration of calling time per day × SAR). Analyses were carried out with statistical package state software(SPSS)v.16.

          Results

          All the data pertaining to mobile phones were different between the two groups except the use of hands free devices (p < 0.001).

          Conclusion

          Our result suggests that use of mobile phones can be related to the early spontaneous abortions.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Prenatal and postnatal exposure to cell phone use and behavioral problems in children.

          The World Health Organization has emphasized the need for research into the possible effects of radiofrequency fields in children. We examined the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to cell phones and behavioral problems in young children. Mothers were recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort early in pregnancy. When the children of those pregnancies reached 7 years of age in 2005 and 2006, mothers were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the current health and behavioral status of children, as well as past exposure to cell phone use. Mothers evaluated the child's behavior problems using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. Mothers of 13,159 children completed the follow-up questionnaire reporting their use of cell phones during pregnancy as well as current cell phone use by the child. Greater odds ratios for behavioral problems were observed for children who had possible prenatal or postnatal exposure to cell phone use. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratio for a higher overall behavioral problems score was 1.80 (95% confidence interval = 1.45-2.23) in children with both prenatal and postnatal exposure to cell phones. Exposure to cell phones prenatally-and, to a lesser degree, postnatally-was associated with behavioral difficulties such as emotional and hyperactivity problems around the age of school entry. These associations may be noncausal and may be due to unmeasured confounding. If real, they would be of public health concern given the widespread use of this technology.
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            Review of the epidemiologic literature on EMF and Health.

            Exposures to extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) emanating from the generation, transmission, and use of electricity are a ubiquitous part of modern life. Concern about potential adverse health effects was initially brought to prominence by an epidemiologic report two decades ago from Denver on childhood cancer. We reviewed the now voluminous epidemiologic literature on EMF and risks of chronic disease and conclude the following: a) The quality of epidemiologic studies on this topic has improved over time and several of the recent studies on childhood leukemia and on cancer associated with occupational exposure are close to the limit of what can realistically be achieved in terms of size of study and methodological rigor. b) Exposure assessment is a particular difficulty of EMF epidemiology, in several respects: i) The exposure is imperceptible, ubiquitous, has multiple sources, and can vary greatly over time and short distances. ii) The exposure period of relevance is before the date at which measurements can realistically be obtained and of unknown duration and induction period. iii) The appropriate exposure metric is not known and there are no biological data from which to impute it. c) In the absence of experimental evidence and given the methodological uncertainties in the epidemiologic literature, there is no chronic disease for which an etiological relation to EMF can be regarded as established. d) There has been a large body of high quality data for childhood cancer, and also for adult leukemia and brain tumor in relation to occupational exposure. Among all the outcomes evaluated in epidemiologic studies of EMF, childhood leukemia in relation to postnatal exposures above 0.4 microT is the one for which there is most evidence of an association. The relative risk has been estimated at 2.0 (95% confidence limit: 1.27-3.13) in a large pooled analysis. This is unlikely to be due to chance but, may be, in part, due to bias. This is difficult to interpret in the absence of a known mechanism or reproducible experimental support. In the large pooled analysis only 0.8% of all children were exposed above 0.4 microT. Further studies need to be designed to test specific hypotheses such as aspects of selection bias or exposure. On the basis of epidemiologic findings, evidence shows an association of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with occupational EMF exposure although confounding is a potential explanation. Breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and suicide and depression remain unresolved.
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              Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure affects fertilization outcome in swine animal model.

              Modern society continuously exposes the population to electromagnetic radiation, the effects of which on human health, in particular reproduction, are still unknown. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of acute (1h) exposure of boar spermatozoa to a 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on early fertility outcome. The effect of intensities ranging from 0 to 2 mT on morpho-functional integrity of capacitated spermatozoa was examined in vitro. The oviducts containing or without spermatozoa were then exposed to the minimum in vivo, TD(50,) and maximum intensities determined in vitro, 4h before ovulation. The effects of ELF-EMF on spermatozoa in terms of early embryo development were evaluated after 12h and 6 days. It was found that in vitro ELF-EMF > 0.5 mT induced a progressive acrosome damage, thus compromising the ability of spermatozoa to undergo acrosomal reaction after zona pellucida stimulation and reducing the in vitro fertilization outcome. These effects became evident at 0.75 mT and reached the plateau at 1 mT. Under in vivo conditions, the ELF-EMF intensity of 1 mT was able to compromise sperm function, significantly reducing the fertilization rate. In addition, the exposure of oviducts to fields > or = 0.75 mT in the absence of spermatozoa was able to negatively affect early embryo development. In fact, it was found to cause a slowdown in the embryo cleavage. In conclusion, it was demonstrated how and at which intensities ELF-EMF negatively affect early fertility outcome in a highly predictive animal model. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                shamsi.f@modares.ac.ir
                ziaei_sa@modares.ac.ir
                pourmir@modares.ac.ir
                aklili@yahoo.com
                Journal
                J Environ Health Sci Eng
                J Environ Health Sci Eng
                Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering
                BioMed Central (London )
                2052-336X
                21 April 2015
                21 April 2015
                2015
                : 13
                Affiliations
                [ ]Faculty of Medical Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
                [ ]Reproductive Health Department, Tarbiat Modares University, P. O. Box: 14115–111, Tehran, Iran
                Article
                193
                10.1186/s40201-015-0193-z
                4416385
                © Mahmodabadi et al., licensee BioMed Central. 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2015

                abortion, electromagnetic fields, mobile phones, pregnancy

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