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      Pretreatment of daily teriparatide enhances the increase of bone mineral density in cortical bones by denosumab therapy

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          Abstract

          Background

          While it is well known that teriparatide (TPTD) increases bone mineral density (BMD) in osteoporotic patients, it is unknown whether TPTD pretreatment affects BMD after denosumab (DMAb) therapy.

          Methods

          Fifty-seven patients in TPTD-pretreated group and 35 patients in DMAb-alone group had been further analyzed, all of whom were treated by DMAb for 1.5 years. Vitamin D (400 IU) and Ca (600 mg) supplementation was used in all patients. The BMD of lumbar 1–4 vertebrae (L-BMD), bilateral total hips (H-BMD), and bilateral femoral neck (FN-BMD) was quantified at first visit, and at 4, 8, 12, and 18 months after daily TPTD treatment following four times DMAb treatment.

          Results

          There were significant differences in L-BMD ( p=0.004) and H-BMD ( p=0.026) at baseline between TPTD-pretreated and DMAb-alone groups, although there was no significant difference in FN-BMD between the two groups. The increase of L-BMD by DMAb therapy was less in TPTD-pretreated group than in DMAb-alone group. There was no significant difference in H-BMD, although percent changes of H-BMD tended to be higher in the TPTD-pretreated group than those in the DMAb-alone group. Percent change in FN-BMD at 4 months ( p=0.067) and 12 months ( p=0.057) tended to be higher in TPTD-pretreated group than in DMAb-alone group. Percent change in FN-BMD at 18 months was significantly higher in TPTD-pretreated group ( p=0.004) than in DMAb-alone group.

          Conclusion

          These findings suggest that the pretreatment of TPTD might have enhanced the increase of BMD in cortical bones treated by DMAb. Thus, it is favorable that TPTD can be used for osteoporotic patients who have high fracture risks with cortical bones.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Effect of parathyroid hormone (1-34) on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

          Once-daily injections of parathyroid hormone or its amino-terminal fragments increase bone formation and bone mass without causing hypercalcemia, but their effects on fractures are unknown. We randomly assigned 1637 postmenopausal women with prior vertebral fractures to receive 20 or 40 microg of parathyroid hormone (1-34) or placebo, administered subcutaneously by the women daily. We obtained vertebral radiographs at base line and at the end of the study (median duration of observation, 21 months) and performed serial measurements of bone mass by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. New vertebral fractures occurred in 14 percent of the women in the placebo group and in 5 percent and 4 percent, respectively, of the women in the 20-microg and 40-microg parathyroid hormone groups; the respective relative risks of fracture in the 20-microg and 40-microg groups, as compared with the placebo group, were 0.35 and 0.31 (95 percent confidence intervals, 0.22 to 0.55 and 0.19 to 0.50). New nonvertebral fragility fractures occurred in 6 percent of the women in the placebo group and in 3 percent of those in each parathyroid hormone group (relative risk, 0.47 and 0.46, respectively [95 percent confidence intervals, 0.25 to 0.88 and 0.25 to 0.861). As compared with placebo, the 20-microg and 40-microg doses of parathyroid hormone increased bone mineral density by 9 and 13 more percentage points in the lumbar spine and by 3 and 6 more percentage points in the femoral neck; the 40-microg dose decreased bone mineral density at the shaft of the radius by 2 more percentage points. Both doses increased total-body bone mineral by 2 to 4 more percentage points than did placebo. Parathyroid hormone had only minor side effects (occasional nausea and headache). Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with parathyroid hormone (1-34) decreases the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures; increases vertebral, femoral, and total-body bone mineral density; and is well tolerated. The 40-microg dose increased bone mineral density more than the 20-microg dose but had similar effects on the risk of fracture and was more likely to have side effects.
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            Postmenopausal osteoporosis.

            Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder that is characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue. Fractures of the proximal femur, the vertebrae and the distal radius are the most frequent osteoporotic fractures, although most fractures in the elderly are probably at least partly related to bone fragility. The incidence of fractures varies greatly by country, but on average up to 50% of women >50 years of age are at risk of fractures. Fractures severely affect the quality of life of an individual and are becoming a major public health problem owing to the ageing population. Postmenopausal osteoporosis, resulting from oestrogen deficiency, is the most common type of osteoporosis. Oestrogen deficiency results in an increase in bone turnover owing to effects on all types of bone cells. The imbalance in bone formation and resorption has effects on trabecular bone (loss of connectivity) and cortical bone (cortical thinning and porosity). Osteoporosis is diagnosed using bone density measurements of the lumbar spine and proximal femur. Preventive strategies to improve bone health include diet, exercise and abstaining from smoking. Fractures may be prevented by reducing falls in high-risk populations. Several drugs are licensed to reduce fracture risk by slowing down bone resorption (such as bisphosphonates and denosumab) or by stimulating bone formation (such as teriparatide). Improved understanding of the cellular basis for osteoporosis has resulted in new drugs targeted to key pathways, which are under development.
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              Japanese 2011 guidelines for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis—executive summary

              Introduction In 1998, the first Japanese practice guidelines on osteoporosis was published. It has been updated several times, with the most recent being the full-scale 2011 edition and its abridged edition. The present guidelines provide information for the managements of primary osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men over 50 years old, a summary of the evidence for the treatment of secondary osteoporosis, and a summary of the evidence for the prevention of osteoporosis in younger people. Method The present Executive Summary is primarily based on the content of the 2011 Japanese abridged edition. One of the key changes is revision of the criteria for initiation of pharmacological treatment, along with an introduction of the fracture risk factors used in FRAX®. Key figures and tables were selected from the Japanese abridged edition and a reference list was added. Result and conclusions The essential points of the Japanese practice guidelines on osteoporosis were translated into English for the first time. It is hoped that the content of the guidelines becomes known throughout the world.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2018
                03 April 2018
                : 14
                : 637-642
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Center for Osteoporosis and Spinal Disorders, Kamimura Orthopedic Clinic, Matsumoto, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Japan
                [3 ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan
                [4 ]Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Showa-Inan General Hospital, Komagane, Japan
                [5 ]Koiwai Orthopedic Clinic, Komoro, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yukio Nakamura, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Asahi 3-1-1, Matsumoto 390-8621, Japan, Tel +81 263 37 2659, Fax +81 263 35 8844, Email yxn14@ 123456aol.jp
                Article
                tcrm-14-637
                10.2147/TCRM.S154686
                5892610
                © 2018 Kamimura et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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