13
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      “Quinone Millipedes” Reconsidered: Evidence for a Mosaic-Like Taxonomic Distribution of Phenol-Based Secretions across the Julidae

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The defensive chemistry of juliformian millipedes is characterized mainly by benzoquinones (”quinone millipedes”), whereas the secretions of the putative close outgroup Callipodida are considered to be exclusively phenolic. We conducted a chemical screening of julid secretions for phenolic content. Most species from tribes Cylindroiulini (15 species examined), Brachyiulini (5 species examined), Leptoiulini (15 species examined), Uncigerini (2 species examined), Pachyiulini (3 species examined), and Ommatoiulini (2 species examined) had non-phenolic, in most cases exclusively benzoquinonic secretions. In contrast, tribes Cylindroiulini, Brachyiulini, and Leptoiulini also contained representatives with predominantly phenol-based exudates. In detail, p-cresol was a major compound in the secretions of the cylindroiulines Styrioiulus pelidnus and S. styricus ( p-cresol content 93 %) and an undetermined Cylindroiulus species ( p-cresol content 51 %), in the brachyiulines Brachyiulus lusitanus ( p-cresol content 21 %) and Megaphyllum fagorum ( p-cresol content 92 %), as well as in an undescribed Typhloiulus species ( p-cresol content 32 %, Leptoiulini). In all species, p-cresol was accompanied by small amounts of phenol. The secretion of M. fagorum was exclusively phenolic, whereas phenols were accompanied by benzoquinones in all other species. This is the first incidence of clearly phenol-dominated secretions in the Julidae. We hypothesize a shared biosynthetic route to phenols and benzoquinones, with benzoquinones being produced from phenolic precursors. The patchy taxonomic distribution of phenols documented herein supports multiple independent regression events in a common pathway of benzoquinone synthesis rather than multiple independent incidences of phenol biosynthesis.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10886-016-0680-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 45

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          A GENERALIZATION OF THE RETENTION INDEX SYSTEM INCLUDING LINEAR TEMPERATURE PROGRAMMED GAS-LIQUID PARTITION CHROMATOGRAPHY.

            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            An ordination of the upland forest communities of southern Wisconsin

              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Current status of the Myriapod class diplopoda (millipedes): taxonomic diversity and phylogeny.

              The arthropod class Diplopoda, the millipedes, ranks among the most diverse groups of terrestrial organisms, with over 12,000 species described. Although they play an important ecological role in most terrestrial ecosystems, little is known about the group's diversity, morphology, and phylogeny compared with other arthropod groups. We review diplopod natural history and discuss the historical and current literature pertaining to millipede morphology, ecology, chemical defenses, and the paleontological record of the group's ancient history. Diplopod systematics, past and present, are reviewed with a focus on taxonomy, collections, and biogeography. The phylogenetics of the class is reviewed, with particular attention on diplopod placement within the Myriapoda and emphasis on recent advances using molecular approaches to phylogenetic reconstruction. We present (a) the first combined morphological and molecular analysis of the millipede orders, and (b) a list of critically evaluated characteristics of nominal clades identifying putative apomorphies.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                guenther.raspotnig@uni-graz.at
                Journal
                J Chem Ecol
                J. Chem. Ecol
                Journal of Chemical Ecology
                Springer US (New York )
                0098-0331
                1573-1561
                14 March 2016
                14 March 2016
                2016
                : 42
                : 249-258
                Affiliations
                [ ]Institute of Zoology, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 2, 8010 Graz, Austria
                [ ]Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Department of Animal Diversity and Resources, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 2 Gagarin Street, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
                [ ]Institute of Zoology, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Studentski Trg 16, Belgrade, 11000 Serbia
                [ ]Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski Trg 12-16, Belgrade, 11000 Serbia
                [ ]Research Unit of Osteology and Analytical Mass Spectrometry, Medical University, University Children’s Hospital, Auenbruggerplatz 30, 8036 Graz, Austria
                Article
                680
                10.1007/s10886-016-0680-4
                4839036
                26971956
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001822, Austrian Academy of Sciences;
                Award ID: 23811
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Article
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

                Comments

                Comment on this article