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SOX10 mutations in patients with Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease.

Nature genetics

genetics, Waardenburg Syndrome, chemistry, Transcription Factors, Sequence Homology, Amino Acid, Sequence Deletion, Sequence Alignment, SOXE Transcription Factors, Rats, Point Mutation, Pedigree, Molecular Sequence Data, Mice, Male, Humans, Hirschsprung Disease, High Mobility Group Proteins, Frameshift Mutation, Female, Exons, DNA-Binding Proteins, DNA Transposable Elements, Cell Line, Animals, Amino Acid Sequence

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      Abstract

      Waardenburg syndrome (WS; deafness with pigmentary abnormalities) and Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR; aganglionic megacolon) are congenital disorders caused by defective function of the embryonic neural crest. WS and HSCR are associated in patients with Waardenburg-Shah syndrome (WS4), whose symptoms are reminiscent of the white coat-spotting and aganglionic megacolon displayed by the mouse mutants Dom (Dominant megacolon), piebald-lethal (sl) and lethal spotting (ls). The sl and ls phenotypes are caused by mutations in the genes encoding the Endothelin-B receptor (Ednrb) and Endothelin 3 (Edn3), respectively. The identification of Sox10 as the gene mutated in Dom mice (B.H. et al., manuscript submitted) prompted us to analyse the role of its human homologue SOX10 in neural crest defects. Here we show that patients from four families with WS4 have mutations in SOX10, whereas no mutation could be detected in patients with HSCR alone. These mutations are likely to result in haploinsufficiency of the SOX10 product. Our findings further define the locus heterogeneity of Waardenburg-Hirschsprung syndromes, and point to an essential role of SOX10 in the development of two neural crest-derived human cell lineages.

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      Most cited references 23

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      Sox10, a novel transcriptional modulator in glial cells.

      Sox proteins are characterized by possession of a DNA-binding domain with similarity to the high-mobility group domain of the sex determining factor SRY. Here, we report on Sox10, a novel protein with predominant expression in glial cells of the nervous system. During development Sox10 first appeared in the forming neural crest and continued to be expressed as these cells contributed to the forming PNS and finally differentiated into Schwann cells. In the CNS, Sox10 transcripts were originally confined to glial precursors and later detected in oligodendrocytes of the adult brain. Functional studies failed to reveal autonomous transcriptional activity for Sox10. Instead, Sox10 functioned synergistically with the POU domain protein Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP with which it is coexpressed during certain stages of Schwann cell development. Synergy depended on binding to adjacent sites in target promoters, was mediated by the N-terminal regions of both proteins, and could not be observed between Sox10 and several other POU domain proteins. Interestingly, Sox10 also modulated the function of Pax3 and Krox-20, two other transcription factors involved in Schwann cell development. We propose a role for Sox10 in conferring cell specificity to the function of other transcription factors in developing and mature glia.
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        Targeted and natural (piebald-lethal) mutations of endothelin-B receptor gene produce megacolon associated with spotted coat color in mice.

        Endothelins act on two subtypes of G protein-coupled receptors, termed endothelin-A and endothelin-B receptors. We report a targeted disruption of the mouse endothelin-B receptor (EDNRB) gene that results in aganglionic megacolon associated with coat color spotting, resembling a hereditary syndrome of mice, humans, and other mammalian species. Piebald-lethal (sl) mice exhibit a recessive phenotype identical to that of the EDNRB knockout mice. In crossbreeding studies, the two mutations show no complementation. Southern blotting revealed a deletion encompassing the entire EDNRB gene in the sl chromosome. A milder allele, piebald (s), which produces coat color spotting only, expresses low levels of structurally intact EDNRB mRNA and protein. These findings indicate an essential role for EDNRB in the development of two neural crest-derived cell lineages, myenteric ganglion neurons and epidermal melanocytes. We postulate that defects in the human EDNRB gene cause a hereditary form of Hirschsprung's disease that has recently been mapped to human chromosome 13, in which EDNRB is located.
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          Interaction of endothelin-3 with endothelin-B receptor is essential for development of epidermal melanocytes and enteric neurons.

          Defects in the gene encoding the endothelin-B receptor produce aganglionic megacolon and pigmentary disorders in mice and humans. We report that a targeted disruption of the mouse endothelin-3 ligand (EDN3) gene produces a similar recessive phenotype of megacolon and coat color spotting. A natural recessive mutation that results in the same developmental defects in mice, lethal spotting (ls), failed to complement the targeted EDN3 allele. The ls mice carry a point mutation of the EDN3 gene, which replaces the Arg residue at the C-terminus of the inactive intermediate big EDN3 with a Trp residue. This mutation prevents the proteolytic activation of big EDN3 by ECE-1. These findings indicate that interaction of EDN3 with the endothelin-B receptor is essential in the development of neural crest-derived cell lineages. We postulate that defects in the human EDN3 gene may cause Hirschsprung's disease.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            10.1038/ng0298-171
            9462749

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